Cracking the Passwords of Early Internet Pioneers

Lots of them weren't very good:

BSD co-inventor Dennis Ritchie, for instance, used "dmac" (his middle name was MacAlistair); Stephen R. Bourne, creator of the Bourne shell command line interpreter, chose "bourne"; Eric Schmidt, an early developer of Unix software and now the executive chairman of Google parent company Alphabet, relied on "wendy!!!" (the name of his wife); and Stuart Feldman, author of Unix automation tool make and the first Fortran compiler, used "axolotl" (the name of a Mexican salamander).

Weakest of all was the password for Unix contributor Brian W. Kernighan: "/.,/.," representing a three-character string repeated twice using adjacent keys on a QWERTY keyboard. (None of the passwords included the quotation marks.)

I don't remember any of my early passwords, but they probably weren't much better.

Posted on October 15, 2019 at 10:38 AM36 Comments

Factoring 2048-bit Numbers Using 20 Million Qubits

This theoretical paper shows how to factor 2048-bit RSA moduli with a 20-million qubit quantum computer in eight hours. It's interesting work, but I don't want overstate the risk.

We know from Shor's Algorithm that both factoring and discrete logs are easy to solve on a large, working quantum computer. Both of those are currently beyond our technological abilities. We barely have quantum computers with 50 to 100 qubits. Extending this requires advances not only in the number of qubits we can work with, but in making the system stable enough to read any answers. You'll hear this called "error rate" or "coherence" -- this paper talks about "noise."

Advances are hard. At this point, we don't know if they're "send a man to the moon" hard or "faster-than-light travel" hard. If I were guessing, I would say they're the former, but still harder than we can accomplish with our current understanding of physics and technology.

I write about all this generally, and in detail, here. (Short summary: Our work on quantum-resistant algorithms is outpacing our work on quantum computers, so we'll be fine in the short run. But future theoretical work on quantum computing could easily change what "quantum resistant" means, so it's possible that public-key cryptography will simply not be possible in the long run. That's not terrible, though; we have a lot of good scalable secret-key systems that do much the same things.)

Posted on October 14, 2019 at 6:58 AM41 Comments

Friday Squid Blogging: Apple Fixes Squid Emoji

Apple fixed the squid emoji in iOS 13.1:

A squid's siphon helps it move, breathe, and discharge waste, so having the siphon in back makes more sense than having it in front. Now, the poor squid emoji will look like it should, without a siphon on its front.

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven't covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Posted on October 11, 2019 at 4:29 PM59 Comments

I Have a New Book: We Have Root

I just published my third collection of essays: We Have Root. This book covers essays from 2013 to 2017. (The first two are Schneier on Security and Carry On.)

There is nothing in this book is that is not available for free on my website; but if you'd like these essays in an easy-to-carry paperback book format, you can order a signed copy here. External vendor links, including for ebook versions, here.

Posted on October 11, 2019 at 2:34 PM3 Comments

Details on Uzbekistan Government Malware: SandCat

Kaspersky has uncovered an Uzbeki hacking operation, mostly due to incompetence on the part of the government hackers.

The group's lax operational security includes using the name of a military group with ties to the SSS to register a domain used in its attack infrastructure; installing Kaspersky's antivirus software on machines it uses to write new malware, allowing Kaspersky to detect and grab malicious code still in development before it's deployed; and embedding a screenshot of one of its developer's machines in a test file, exposing a major attack platform as it was in development. The group's mistakes led Kaspersky to discover four zero-day exploits SandCat had purchased from third-party brokers to target victim machines, effectively rendering those exploits ineffective. And the mistakes not only allowed Kaspersky to track the Uzbek spy agency's activity but also the activity of other nation-state groups in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates who were using some of the same exploits SandCat was using.

Posted on October 11, 2019 at 6:14 AM24 Comments

New Reductor Nation-State Malware Compromises TLS

Kaspersky has a detailed blog post about a new piece of sophisticated malware that it's calling Reductor. The malware is able to compromise TLS traffic by infecting the computer with hacked TLS engine substituted on the fly, "marking" infected TLS handshakes by compromising the underlining random-number generator, and adding new digital certificates. The result is that the attacker can identify, intercept, and decrypt TLS traffic from the infected computer.

The Kaspersky Attribution Engine shows strong code similarities between this family and the COMPfun Trojan. Moreover, further research showed that the original COMpfun Trojan most probably is used as a downloader in one of the distribution schemes. Based on these similarities, we're quite sure the new malware was developed by the COMPfun authors.

The COMpfun malware was initially documented by G-DATA in 2014. Although G-DATA didn't identify which actor was using this malware, Kaspersky tentatively linked it to the Turla APT, based on the victimology. Our telemetry indicates that the current campaign using Reductor started at the end of April 2019 and remained active at the time of writing (August 2019). We identified targets in Russia and Belarus.

[...]

Turla has in the past shown many innovative ways to accomplish its goals, such as using hijacked satellite infrastructure. This time, if we're right that Turla is the actor behind this new wave of attacks, then with Reductor it has implemented a very interesting way to mark a host's encrypted TLS traffic by patching the browser without parsing network packets. The victimology for this new campaign aligns with previous Turla interests.

We didn't observe any MitM functionality in the analyzed malware samples. However, Reductor is able to install digital certificates and mark the targets' TLS traffic. It uses infected installers for initial infection through HTTP downloads from warez websites. The fact the original files on these sites are not infected also points to evidence of subsequent traffic manipulation.

The attribution chain from Reductor to COMPfun to Turla is thin. Speculation is that the attacker behind all of this is Russia.

Posted on October 10, 2019 at 1:49 PM15 Comments

Wi-Fi Hotspot Tracking

Free Wi-Fi hotspots can track your location, even if you don't connect to them. This is because your phone or computer broadcasts a unique MAC address.

What distinguishes location-based marketing hotspot providers like Zenreach and Euclid is that the personal information you enter in the captive portal­ -- like your email address, phone number, or social media profile­ -- can be linked to your laptop or smartphone's Media Access Control (MAC) address. That's the unique alphanumeric ID that devices broadcast when Wi-Fi is switched on.

As Euclid explains in its privacy policy, "...if you bring your mobile device to your favorite clothing store today that is a Location -- ­and then a popular local restaurant a few days later that is also a Location­ -- we may know that a mobile device was in both locations based on seeing the same MAC Address."

MAC addresses alone don't contain identifying information besides the make of a device, such as whether a smartphone is an iPhone or a Samsung Galaxy. But as long as a device's MAC address is linked to someone's profile, and the device's Wi-Fi is turned on, the movements of its owner can be followed by any hotspot from the same provider.

"After a user signs up, we associate their email address and other personal information with their device's MAC address and with any location history we may previously have gathered (or later gather) for that device's MAC address," according to Zenreach's privacy policy.

The defense is to turn Wi-Fi off on your phone when you're not using it.

EDITED TO ADD: Note that the article is from 2018. Not that I think anything is different today....

Posted on October 10, 2019 at 5:49 AM32 Comments

Cheating at Professional Poker

Interesting story about someone who is almost certainly cheating at professional poker.

But then I start to see things that seem so obvious, but I wonder whether they aren't just paranoia after hours and hours of digging into the mystery. Like the fact that he starts wearing a hat that has a strange bulge around the brim -- one that vanishes after the game when he's doing an interview in the booth. Is it a bone-conducting headset, as some online have suggested, sending him messages directly to his inner ear by vibrating on his skull? Of course it is! How could it be anything else? It's so obvious! Or the fact that he keeps his keys in the same place on the table all the time. Could they contain a secret camera that reads electronic sensors on the cards? I can't see any other possibility! It is all starting to make sense.

In the end, though, none of this additional evidence is even necessary. The gaggle of online Jim Garrisons have simply picked up more momentum than is required and they can't stop themselves. The fact is, the mystery was solved a long time ago. It's just like De Niro's Ace Rothstein says in Casino when the yokel slot attendant gets hit for three jackpots in a row and tells his boss there was no way for him to know he was being scammed. "Yes there is," Ace replies. "An infallible way. They won." According to one poster on TwoPlusTwo, in 69 sessions on Stones Live, Postle has won in 62 of them, for a profit of over $250,000 in 277 hours of play. Given that he plays such a large number of hands, and plays such an erratic and, by his own admission, high-variance style, one would expect to see more, well, variance. His results just aren't possible even for the best players in the world, which, if he isn't cheating, he definitely is among. Add to this the fact that it has been alleged that Postle doesn't play in other nonstreamed live games at Stones, or anywhere else in the Sacramento area, and hasn't been known to play in any sizable no-limit games anywhere in a long time, and that he always picks up his chips and leaves as soon as the livestream ends. I don't really need any more evidence than that. If you know poker players, you know that this is the most damning evidence against him. Poker players like to play poker. If any of the poker players I know had the win rate that Mike Postle has, you'd have to pry them up from the table with a crowbar. The guy is making nearly a thousand dollars an hour! He should be wearing adult diapers so he doesn't have to take a bathroom break and cost himself $250.

This isn't the first time someone has been accused of cheating because they are simply playing significantly better than computer simulations predict that even the best player would play.

News article. BoingBoing post

Posted on October 9, 2019 at 12:26 PM17 Comments

Illegal Data Center Hidden in Former NATO Bunker

Interesting:

German investigators said Friday they have shut down a data processing center installed in a former NATO bunker that hosted sites dealing in drugs and other illegal activities. Seven people were arrested.

[...]

Thirteen people aged 20 to 59 are under investigation in all, including three German and seven Dutch citizens, Brauer said.

Authorities arrested seven of them, citing the danger of flight and collusion. They are suspected of membership in a criminal organization because of a tax offense, as well as being accessories to hundreds of thousands of offenses involving drugs, counterfeit money and forged documents, and accessories to the distribution of child pornography. Authorities didn't name any of the suspects.

The data center was set up as what investigators described as a "bulletproof hoster," meant to conceal illicit activities from authorities' eyes.

Investigators say the platforms it hosted included "Cannabis Road," a drug-dealing portal; the "Wall Street Market," which was one of the world's largest online criminal marketplaces for drugs, hacking tools and financial-theft wares until it was taken down earlier this year; and sites such as "Orange Chemicals" that dealt in synthetic drugs. A botnet attack on German telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom in late 2016 that knocked out about 1 million customers' routers also appears to have come from the data center in Traben-Trarbach, Brauer said.

EDITED TO ADD (10/9): This is a better article.

Posted on October 9, 2019 at 6:34 AM11 Comments

Speakers Censored at AISA Conference in Melbourne

Two speakers were censored at the Australian Information Security Association's annual conference this week in Melbourne. Thomas Drake, former NSA employee and whistleblower, was scheduled to give a talk on the golden age of surveillance, both government and corporate. Suelette Dreyfus, lecturer at the University of Melbourne, was scheduled to give a talk on her work -- funded by the EU government -- on anonymous whistleblowing technologies like SecureDrop and how they reduce corruption in countries where that is a problem.

Both were put on the program months ago. But just before the event, the Australian government's ACSC (the Australian Cyber Security Centre) demanded they both be removed from the program.

It's really kind of stupid. Australia has been benefiting a lot from whistleblowers in recent years -- exposing corruption and bad behavior on the part of the government -- and the government doesn't like it. It's cracking down on the whistleblowers and reporters who write their stories. My guess is that someone high up in ACSC saw the word "whistleblower" in the descriptions of those two speakers and talks and panicked.

You can read details of their talks, including abstracts and slides, here. Of course, now everyone is writing about the story. The two censored speakers spent a lot of the day yesterday on the phone with reporters, and they have a bunch of TV and radio interviews today.

I am at this conference, speaking on Wednesday morning (today in Australia, as I write this). ACSC used to have its own government cybersecurity conference. This is the first year it combined with AISA. I hope it's the last. And that AISA invites the two speakers back next year to give their censored talks.

EDITED TO ADD (10/9): More on the censored talks, and my comments from the stage at the conference.

Slashdot thread.

Posted on October 8, 2019 at 5:15 PM24 Comments

Sidebar photo of Bruce Schneier by Joe MacInnis.