Latest Essays

We Must Bridge the Gap Between Technology and Policymaking. Our Future Depends on It

  • Bruce Schneier
  • World Economic Forum
  • November 12, 2019

This essay also appeared in The OECD Forum Network.

Technologists and policymakers largely inhabit two separate worlds. It's an old problem, one that the British scientist CP Snow identified in a 1959 essay entitled The Two Cultures. He called them sciences and humanities, and pointed to the split as a major hindrance to solving the world's problems. The essay was influential - but 60 years later, nothing has changed.

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Every Part of the Supply Chain Can Be Attacked

When it comes to 5G technology, we have to build a trustworthy system out of untrustworthy parts.

  • Bruce Schneier
  • The New York Times
  • September 25, 2019

The United States government's continuing disagreement with the Chinese company Huawei underscores a much larger problem with computer technologies in general: We have no choice but to trust them completely, and it's impossible to verify that they're trustworthy. Solving this problem — which is increasingly a national security issue — will require us to both make major policy changes and invent new technologies.

The Huawei problem is simple to explain. The company is based in China and subject to the rules and dictates of the Chinese government.

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The Real Threat from China Isn't "Spy Trains"

  • Bruce Schneier
  • CNN
  • September 21, 2019

The trade war with China has reached a new industry: subway cars. Congress is considering legislation that would prevent the world's largest train maker, the Chinese-owned CRRC Corporation, from competing on new contracts in the United States.

Part of the reasoning behind this legislation is economic, and stems from worries about Chinese industries undercutting the competition and dominating key global industries. But another part involves fears about national security.

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What Digital Nerds and Bio Geeks Have to Worry About

  • Bruce Schneier and Larisa Rudenko
  • CNN
  • September 13, 2019

All of life is based on the coordinated action of genetic parts (genes and their controlling sequences) found in the genomes (the complete DNA sequence) of organisms.

Genes and genomes are based on code-- just like the digital language of computers. But instead of zeros and ones, four DNA letters --- A, C, T, G—encode all of life. (Life is messy, and there are actually all sorts of edge cases, but ignore that for now.) If you have the sequence that encodes an organism, in theory, you could recreate it.

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The Myth of Consumer Security

  • Bruce Schneier
  • Lawfare
  • August 26, 2019

The Department of Justice wants access to encrypted consumer devices but promises not to infiltrate business products or affect critical infrastructure. Yet that's not possible, because there is no longer any difference between those categories of devices. Consumer devices are critical infrastructure. They affect national security.

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8 Ways to Stay Ahead of Influence Operations

With election meddling inevitable in 2020, the United States needs a powerful kill chain.

  • Bruce Schneier
  • Foreign Policy
  • August 12, 2019

Influence operations are elusive to define. The Rand Corp.’s definition is as good as any: “the collection of tactical information about an adversary as well as the dissemination of propaganda in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.” Basically, we know it when we see it, from bots controlled by the Russian Internet Research Agency to Saudi attempts to plant fake stories and manipulate political debate. These operations have been run by Iran against the United States, Russia against Ukraine, China against Taiwan, and probably lots more besides.

Since the 2016 U.S.

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Attorney General William Barr on Encryption Policy

  • Bruce Schneier
  • Lawfare
  • July 23, 2019

This morning, Attorney General William Barr gave a major speech on encryption policy—what is commonly known as "going dark." Speaking at Fordham University in New York, he admitted that adding backdoors decreases security but that it is worth it.

Some hold this view dogmatically, claiming that it is technologically impossible to provide lawful access without weakening security against unlawful access. But, in the world of cybersecurity, we do not deal in absolute guarantees but in relative risks. All systems fall short of optimality and have some residual risk of vulnerability—a point which the tech community acknowledges when they propose that law enforcement can satisfy its requirements by exploiting vulnerabilities in their products.

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We Must Prepare for the Next Pandemic

We’ll have to battle both the disease and the fake news.

  • Bruce Schneier
  • The New York Times
  • June 17, 2019

When the next pandemic strikes, we'll be fighting it on two fronts. The first is the one you immediately think about: understanding the disease, researching a cure and inoculating the population. The second is new, and one you might not have thought much about: fighting the deluge of rumors, misinformation and flat-out lies that will appear on the internet.

The second battle will be like the Russian disinformation campaigns during the 2016 presidential election, only with the addition of a deadly health crisis and possibly without a malicious government actor.

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AI Has Made Video Surveillance Automated and Terrifying

AI can flag people based on their clothing or behavior, identify people's emotions, and find people who are acting "unusual."

  • Bruce Schneier
  • Motherboard
  • June 13, 2019

It used to be that surveillance cameras were passive. Maybe they just recorded, and no one looked at the video unless they needed to. Maybe a bored guard watched a dozen different screens, scanning for something interesting. In either case, the video was only stored for a few days because storage was expensive.

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AI Can Thrive in Open Societies

The belief that China’s surveillance gives it an advantage is misleading—and dangerous.

  • Bruce Schneier
  • Foreign Policy
  • June 13, 2019

According to foreign-policy experts and the defense establishment, the United States is caught in an artificial intelligence arms race with China—one with serious implications for national security. The conventional version of this story suggests that the United States is at a disadvantage because of self-imposed restraints on the collection of data and the privacy of its citizens, while China, an unrestrained surveillance state, is at an advantage. In this vision, the data that China collects will be fed into its systems, leading to more powerful AI with capabilities we can only imagine today. Since Western countries can't or won't reap such a comprehensive harvest of data from their citizens, China will win the AI arms race and dominate the next century.

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Sidebar photo of Bruce Schneier by Joe MacInnis.