Random Number Bug in Debian Linux
This is a big deal:
On May 13th, 2008 the Debian project announced that Luciano Bello found an interesting vulnerability in the OpenSSL package they were distributing. The bug in question was caused by the removal of the following line of code from md_rand.cMD_Update(&m,buf,j); [ .. ] MD_Update(&m,buf,j); /* purify complains */
These lines were removed because they caused the Valgrind and Purify tools to produce warnings about the use of uninitialized data in any code that was linked to OpenSSL. You can see one such report to the OpenSSL team here. Removing this code has the side effect of crippling the seeding process for the OpenSSL PRNG. Instead of mixing in random data for the initial seed, the only “random” value that was used was the current process ID. On the Linux platform, the default maximum process ID is 32,768, resulting in a very small number of seed values being used for all PRNG operations.
More info, from Debian, here. And from the hacker community here. Seems that the bug was introduced in September 2006.
More analysis here. And a cartoon.
Random numbers are used everywhere in cryptography, for both short- and long-term security. And, as we’ve seen here, security flaws in random number generators are really easy to accidently create and really hard to discover after the fact. Back when the NSA was routinely weakening commercial cryptography, their favorite technique was reducing the entropy of the random number generator.
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