You probably won't have to install tracking stations all over the place, the infrastructure is already in place.
The European Union mandated the mounting in all new vehicles of a system named "E-Call", which automatically summons emergency help should a set of conditions be met, e.g., car comes to a sudden stop and airbag is deployed.
Committees of cellular network operators, automotive manufacturers, mobile equipment manufacturers, together with public safety services, hammered out a few years ago the essential details of the standard baseline module.
An issue was the signalling load which would eventually be inflicted by a potential 9-figure fleet of essentially idle terminals that don't generate any revenue. The solution was to specify that the GSM modules should never perform a location update [the operation in which a moving MS selects and registers with a new cell site], but to remain silent while continuously scanning the spectrum for the best possible channel, until the time comes.
Another issue was SIM, since the MS should be able to use any available network. Operators must already accept calls to 112 [the European approximate equivalent of 911] without a SIM installed, so the same goes for E-call. Of course, premium models could have a SIM installed, as is already the case in luxury brands.
But even though the module isn't chatty in theory, I would be rather surprised if backdoors weren't provided, or at least thought of. A standards-compliant UE can technically respond to a paging message containing the IMSI, and it would in all probability be connected to the vehicle's CAN-BUS, over which the VIN can be read. A part of the IMSI addressing space could quietly be reserved for a VIN mapping, or the IMSI to VIN correspondence could be recorded at the car factory.
European police forces already have a history of polling mobiles with "silent SMSs" to find their whereabouts, without judicial oversight, and since these also sat on the E-call committee... A perfect excuse can be readily found, such as car theft. [Robbers have a field day, as car manufacturers have no real interest in providing secure electronics.]
The rationale for mandating E-call was that a saving of X minutes for the body snatchers in reaching an accident site should save Y lives, and result in a gain of Z Euros for society. But the EU and its member states have a demonstrably awful track record when it came to defining limits for NOx and PM emissions [think of Volkswagen] or imposing and reducing a speed limit, which demonstrably saves lives, while reducing CO2 emissions.
Instead it went for the technological Band-Aid of E-call, and preserved the sacred rights of the reckless driver who must be saved at all costs with helicopters rescue and first class emergency care.
The interests of the automobile industry prevailed, as usual...