How much fuel did it carry?
Difficult to say. The Surveyor-D retro-rocket assembly was about 1463 lbs (Surveyor-A 1377 lbs). The motor-casing + nozzle was 144 lbs, (Surveyor-A 142 lbs) and 1444 lbs (Surveyor-A 1377 lbs) with propellant (aluminium, ammonium-perchlorate and polyhydrocarbon case-bonded composite).
The Surveyor craft had three liquid-fuelled vernier engines, each with a tank capacity of 170.3 lbs of a hypergolic mixture of nitrogen tetroxide with 10% nitric oxide, and monomethylhydrazine monohydrate. Assuming full tanks, that's 510.9 lbs
4.5 lbs nitrogen was carried for the gas thrusters for attitude control.
What did it weigh?
On earth, the overall weight of Surveyor-D was 2290 lbs (Surveyor-A was 2194 lbs). After discarding the used solid-propellant retro-rocket assembly and using the liquid fuelled vernier rockets and gas thrusters, the weight on earth of the craft's lunar configuration would have been about 625 lbs (Surveyor-A 620 lbs).
What were the specs on the retrorocket?
I don't know its delta-V. Thrust was between 8 and 10 thousand lbs, assuming operation in a particular temperature range.It was expected to operate for roughly 40 seconds.
What's the fuel consumption of the craft during decent from 5000+ MPH to 13fps?
Assuming you mean the duration of the retro/rocket burn, for Surveyor-D about 1300 lbs of propellant (1444-144)
How much fuel on board?
How was it controlled? There was no computer on-board.
There was a computer on board, or rather, computers (Command decoder, engineering signal processor, auxiliary processor, flight control programmer). The 'flight control programmer' controlled the descent. The altitude marking radar AMR was activated by ground command at approximately 200 miles altitude.All subsequent operations were controlled by the flight control programmer, although ground also transmitted a backup retro-rocket firing signal. When the AMR (pointing diagonally due to the probe's attitude) measured 60 miles to lunar surface, the flight control programmer would light the retro.(which ejects the AMR) after a pre-determined delay and also the 3 vernier engines (to provide attitude control).After retro burnout, the flight control programmer continued to control the verniers, until the Radar Altimeter and Doppler Velocity Sensor (RADVS) (which was separate to the AMR) gained a lock on the lunar surface.Using the RADVS, the flight control programmer then controlled the verniers to reduce the velocity to about 3 to 3.5 mph at about 13 to 14 feet above the surface, at which point the engines where cut, and the Surveyor landed in free-fall.
Flight control of Surveyor, control of its attitude and velocity from Centaur separation to touchdown on the Moon, is provided by: primary Sun sensor, automatic Sun acquisition sensor, Canopus sensor, inertial reference unit, altitude marking radar, inertia burnout switch, radar altimeter and Doppler velocity sensors, flight control electronic, and three pairs of cold gas jets. Flight control electronics includes a digital programmer, gating and switching, logic and a signal data converter for the radar altimeter and Doppler velocity sensors. The information provided by the sensors is processed through logic circuitry in the flight control electronics to yield actuating signals to the gas jets and to the three liquid fuel vernier engines and the solid fuel main retromotor.
The flight control electronics provides for processing sensor information into telemetry and to actuate spacecraft mechanisms. It consists of control circuits, a command decoder and an AC/DC electronic conversion
unit. The programmer controls timing of main retro phase and generates precision time delays for attitude maneuvers and midcourse velocity correction.
Main, but not only source: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19660022877.pdf
Note that much of the trajectory was pre-computed, as described here:
Actual landing was tested with a model on earth, starting with it tethered to a tower, but ultimately drop-tested from a balloon, as described starting from page 7, here:https://trs.jpl.nasa.gov/bitstream/handle/2014/38026/04-0406.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
The Apollo landing trajectory was pre-computed, but allowed for the mission commander to vary the final stage to avoid landing on untenable terrain, which is what Armstrong did.
Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing, was an unqualified success. The descent was nominal until the beginning of the landing phase (an altitude of approximately 410 feet), at which time the commander (with manual control) was required to avoid a large area of rough terrain. The size of the area was such that the crew should have been able to detect and efficiently avoid it during the approach phase, if sufficent attention could have been devoted to visual assessment. Adequate visual assessment was not possible during Apollo 11 because of the guidance program alarms. The problem causing these alarms has been corrected.
(Source: Apollo lunar descent and ascent trajectories. https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/nasa58040.pdf)
The Apollo landing strategy specifically allowed for the commander to view the landing zone, and a target graticule was engraved on the LM window to assist this process. See here for details:Apollo Lunar Module Landing Strategy https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/science-technology-and-society/sts-471j-engineering-apollo-the-moon-project-as-a-complex-system-spring-2007/readings/4_2_lunr_landing.pdf
And no, that is not the arbitrated bus I had in mind. Try again.
May you live and grow in wisdom for 10,000 years.