Entries Tagged "SHA-1"

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New SHA-1 Attack

There’s a new, practical, collision attack against SHA-1:

In this paper, we report the first practical implementation of this attack, and its impact on real-world security with a PGP/GnuPG impersonation attack. We managed to significantly reduce the complexity of collisions attack against SHA-1: on an Nvidia GTX 970, identical-prefix collisions can now be computed with a complexity of 261.2rather than264.7, and chosen-prefix collisions with a complexity of263.4rather than267.1. When renting cheap GPUs, this translates to a cost of 11k US$ for a collision,and 45k US$ for a chosen-prefix collision, within the means of academic researchers.Our actual attack required two months of computations using 900 Nvidia GTX 1060GPUs (we paid 75k US$ because GPU prices were higher, and we wasted some time preparing the attack).

It has practical applications:

We chose the PGP/GnuPG Web of Trust as demonstration of our chosen-prefix collision attack against SHA-1. The Web of Trust is a trust model used for PGP that relies on users signing each other’s identity certificate, instead of using a central PKI. For compatibility reasons the legacy branch of GnuPG (version 1.4) still uses SHA-1 by default for identity certification.

Using our SHA-1 chosen-prefix collision, we have created two PGP keys with different UserIDs and colliding certificates: key B is a legitimate key for Bob (to be signed by the Web of Trust), but the signature can be transferred to key A which is a forged key with Alice’s ID. The signature will still be valid because of the collision, but Bob controls key A with the name of Alice, and signed by a third party. Therefore, he can impersonate Alice and sign any document in her name.

From a news article:

The new attack is significant. While SHA1 has been slowly phased out over the past five years, it remains far from being fully deprecated. It’s still the default hash function for certifying PGP keys in the legacy 1.4 version branch of GnuPG, the open-source successor to PGP application for encrypting email and files. Those SHA1-generated signatures were accepted by the modern GnuPG branch until recently, and were only rejected after the researchers behind the new collision privately reported their results.

Git, the world’s most widely used system for managing software development among multiple people, still relies on SHA1 to ensure data integrity. And many non-Web applications that rely on HTTPS encryption still accept SHA1 certificates. SHA1 is also still allowed for in-protocol signatures in the Transport Layer Security and Secure Shell protocols.

Posted on January 8, 2020 at 9:38 AMView Comments

MD5 and SHA-1 Still Used in 2018

Last week, the Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence published a draft document — “SWGDE Position on the Use of MD5 and SHA1 Hash Algorithms in Digital and Multimedia Forensics” — where it accepts the use of MD5 and SHA-1 in digital forensics applications:

While SWGDE promotes the adoption of SHA2 and SHA3 by vendors and practitioners, the MD5 and SHA1 algorithms remain acceptable for integrity verification and file identification applications in digital forensics. Because of known limitations of the MD5 and SHA1 algorithms, only SHA2 and SHA3 are appropriate for digital signatures and other security applications.

This is technically correct: the current state of cryptanalysis against MD5 and SHA-1 allows for collisions, but not for pre-images. Still, it’s really bad form to accept these algorithms for any purpose. I’m sure the group is dealing with legacy applications, but I would like it to really push those application vendors to update their hash functions.

Posted on December 24, 2018 at 6:25 AMView Comments

SHA-1 Freestart Collision

There’s a new cryptanalysis result against the hash function SHA-1:

Abstract: We present in this article a freestart collision example for SHA-1, i.e., a collision for its internal compression function. This is the first practical break of the full SHA-1, reaching all 80 out of 80 steps, while only 10 days of computation on a 64 GPU cluster were necessary to perform the attack. This work builds on a continuous series of cryptanalytic advancements on SHA-1 since the theoretical collision attack breakthrough in 2005. In particular, we extend the recent freestart collision work on reduced-round SHA-1 from CRYPTO 2015 that leverages the computational power of graphic cards and adapt it to allow the use of boomerang speed-up techniques. We also leverage the cryptanalytic techniques by Stevens from EUROCRYPT 2013 to obtain optimal attack conditions, which required further refinements for this work. Freestart collisions, like the one presented here, do not directly imply a collision for SHA-1.

However, this work is an important milestone towards an actual SHA-1 collision and it further shows how graphics cards can be used very efficiently for these kind of attacks. Based on the state-of-the-art collision attack on SHA-1 by Stevens from EUROCRYPT 2013, we are able to present new projections on the computational/financial cost required by a SHA-1 collision computation. These projections are significantly lower than previously anticipated by the industry, due to the use of the more cost efficient graphics cards compared to regular CPUs. We therefore recommend the industry, in particular Internet browser vendors and Certification Authorities, to retract SHA-1 soon. We hope the industry has learned from the events surrounding the cryptanalytic breaks of MD5 and will retract SHA-1 before example signature forgeries appear in the near future. With our new cost projections in mind, we strongly and urgently recommend against a recent proposal to extend the issuance of SHA-1 certificates by a year in the CAB/forum (the vote closes on October 16 2015 after a discussion period ending on October 9).

Especially note this bit: “Freestart collisions, like the one presented here, do not directly imply a collision for SHA-1. However, this work is an important milestone towards an actual SHA-1 collision and it further shows how graphics cards can be used very efficiently for these kind of attacks.” In other words: don’t panic, but prepare for a future panic.

This is not that unexpected. We’ve long known that SHA-1 is broken, at least theoretically. All the major browsers are planning to stop accepting SHA-1 signatures by 2017. Microsoft is retiring it on that same schedule. What’s news is that our previous estimates may be too conservative.

There’s a saying inside the NSA: “Attacks always get better; they never get worse.” This is obviously true, but it’s worth explaining why. Attacks get better for three reasons. One, Moore’s Law means that computers are always getting faster, which means that any cryptanalytic attack gets faster. Two, we’re forever making tweaks in existing attacks, which make them faster. (Note above: “…due to the use of the more cost efficient graphics cards compared to regular CPUs.”) And three, we regularly invent new cryptanalytic attacks. The first of those is generally predictable, the second is somewhat predictable, and the third is not at all predictable.

Way back in 2004, I wrote: “It’s time for us all to migrate away from SHA-1.” Since then, we have developed an excellent replacement: SHA-3 has been agreed on since 2012, and just became a standard.

This new result is important right now:

Thursday’s research showing SHA1 is weaker than previously thought comes as browser developers and certificate authorities are considering a proposal that would extend the permitted issuance of the SHA1-based HTTPS certificates by 12 months, that is through the end of 2016 rather than no later than January of that year. The proposal argued that some large organizations currently find it hard to move to a more secure hashing algorithm for their digital certificates and need the additional year to make the transition.

As the papers’ authors note, approving this proposal is a bad idea.

More on the paper here.

Posted on October 8, 2015 at 11:44 AMView Comments

Microsoft Retiring SHA-1 in 2016

I think this is a good move on Microsoft’s part:

Microsoft is recommending that customers and CA’s stop using SHA-1 for cryptographic applications, including use in SSL/TLS and code signing. Microsoft Security Advisory 2880823 has been released along with the policy announcement that Microsoft will stop recognizing the validity of SHA-1 based certificates after 2016.

More news.

SHA-1 isn’t broken yet in a practical sense, but the algorithm is barely hanging on and attacks will only get worse. Migrating away from SHA-1 is the smart thing to do.

Posted on November 13, 2013 at 2:17 PMView Comments

When Will We See Collisions for SHA-1?

On a NIST-sponsored hash function mailing list, Jesse Walker (from Intel; also a member of the Skein team) did some back-of-the-envelope calculations to estimate how long it will be before we see a practical collision attack against SHA-1. I’m reprinting his analysis here, so it reaches a broader audience.

According to E-BASH, the cost of one block of a SHA-1 operation on already deployed commodity microprocessors is about 214 cycles. If Stevens’ attack of 260 SHA-1 operations serves as the baseline, then finding a collision costs about 214 * 260 ~ 274 cycles.

A core today provides about 231 cycles/sec; the state of the art is 8 = 23 cores per processor for a total of 23 * 231 = 234 cycles/sec. A server typically has 4 processors, increasing the total to 22 * 234 = 236 cycles/sec. Since there are about 225 sec/year, this means one server delivers about 225 * 236 = 261 cycles per year, which we can call a “server year.”

There is ample evidence that Moore’s law will continue through the mid 2020s. Hence the number of doublings in processor power we can expect between now and 2021 is:

3/1.5 = 2 times by 2015 (3 = 2015 – 2012)

6/1.5 = 4 times by 2018 (6 = 2018 – 2012)

9/1.5 = 6 times by 2021 (9 = 2021 – 2012)

So a commodity server year should be about:

261 cycles/year in 2012

22 * 261 = 263 cycles/year by 2015

24 * 261 = 265 cycles/year by 2018

26 * 261 = 267 cycles/year by 2021

Therefore, on commodity hardware, Stevens’ attack should cost approximately:

274 / 261 = 213 server years in 2012

274 / 263 = 211 server years by 2015

274 / 265 = 29 server years by 2018

274 / 267 = 27 server years by 2021

Today Amazon rents compute time on commodity servers for about $0.04 / hour ~ $350 /year. Assume compute rental fees remain fixed while server capacity keeps pace with Moore’s law. Then, since log2(350) ~ 8.4 the cost of the attack will be approximately:

213 * 28.4 = 221.4 ~ $2.77M in 2012

211 * 28.4 = 219.4 ~ $700K by 2015

29 * 28.4 = 217.4 ~ $173K by 2018

27 * 28.4 = 215.4 ~ $43K by 2021

A collision attack is therefore well within the range of what an organized crime syndicate can practically budget by 2018, and a university research project by 2021.

Since this argument only takes into account commodity hardware and not instruction set improvements (e.g., ARM 8 specifies a SHA-1 instruction), other commodity computing devices with even greater processing power (e.g., GPUs), and custom hardware, the need to transition from SHA-1 for collision resistance functions is probably more urgent than this back-of-the-envelope analysis suggests.

Any increase in the number of cores per CPU, or the number of CPUs per server, also affects these calculations. Also, any improvements in cryptanalysis will further reduce the complexity of this attack.

The point is that we in the community need to start the migration away from SHA-1 and to SHA-2/SHA-3 now.

Posted on October 5, 2012 at 1:24 PMView Comments

Ever Better Cryptanalytic Results Against SHA-1

The SHA family (which, I suppose, should really be called the MD4 family) of cryptographic hash functions has been under attack for a long time. In 2005, we saw the first cryptanalysis of SHA-1 that was faster than brute force: collisions in 269 hash operations, later improved to 263 operations. A great result, but not devastating. But remember the great truism of cryptanalysis: attacks always get better, they never get worse. Last week, devastating got a whole lot closer. A new attack can, at least in theory, find collisions in 252 hash operations — well within the realm of computational possibility. Assuming the cryptanalysis is correct, we should expect to see an actual SHA-1 collision within the year.

Note that this is a collision attack, not a pre-image attack. Most uses of hash functions don’t care about collision attacks. But if yours does, switch to SHA-2 immediately. (This has more information on this, written for the 269 attack.)

This is why NIST is administering a SHA-3 competition for a new hash standard. And whatever algorithm is chosen, it will look nothing like anything in the SHA family (which is why I think it should be called the Advanced Hash Standard, or AHS).

Posted on June 16, 2009 at 12:21 PMView Comments

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Sidebar photo of Bruce Schneier by Joe MacInnis.