Friday Squid Blogging: Another Giant Squid Captured on Video

Here’s a new video of a giant squid, filmed in the Sea of Japan.

I believe it’s injured. It’s so close to the surface, and not really moving very much.

“We didn’t see the kinds of agile movements that many fish and marine creatures normally show,” he said. “Its tentacles and fins were moving very slowly.”

As usual, you can also use this squid post to talk about the security stories in the news that I haven’t covered.

Read my blog posting guidelines here.

Posted on January 20, 2023 at 5:00 PM85 Comments


Clive Robinson January 20, 2023 7:46 PM

@ Bruce, ALL,

This might amuse,

“What Not To Write On Your Security Clearance Form”

(note the date of 1988 oh and take a pinch of salt 😉

Whilst I’ve never had the authorities chase me in this way, my mis spent youth has had more than sufficient scrapes one way or another.

My father once told me,

“If you get yourself into trouble you can not talk your way out of, then you deserve what you get!”

Admittedly it was mid 1970’s in times when the authorities were somewhat more honest in their approach[1].

I’ve had a few bits of fun, one involving a 55gallon drum full of fertilizer and a handfull or three of coal dust in the middle of a farmers field… The resulting “duck pond” is quite impressive… Doing that today would probably get you an orange jump suit and an indefinate stay holiday at the arse end of Cuba[2] or worse…

And that as they say is not the least of it… My involvment almost pre-teen in “Broadcast Radio” and being in effect a “Pirate” caused me to meet a lot of people before they became famous more legitimately was fun but that sort of “lime light” never was of interest, as they say “hup narf” I was “doin it frer t’ crac”[3]

Oddly great fun though it all was, when I went through the security clearence process, it never came up… The big problem was when getting put through the process again the issuers of clearences knowing what level I held were puzzled by the fact another organisation wanted me cleared at a much lower level[4]…

Which should tell you something about the way bureaucracy combined with securiry DOES NOT work…

Any way, as they say,

“Plenty more stories where those came from…”.

[1] I used to think it was at the end of the 1980’s when things turned dishonest… But in more recent times now the Old Witch is dead, and thirty years have gone by, I was informed after enquiry that Mrs Thatcher when UK Prime Minster and effective Head of State had called for me to be setup to be arrested and discredited thus neutralized. Why because I had the temerity to point out grave security faults in a system called “BT-Gold”. It had caused much embarrassement by being hacked on the BBC Micro-Live show estimated to have been seen by about half the UK viewers back then… Most embarrassing because Maggie was trying to flog of BT to the UK public and she wanted nothing to bring the share price down… So my writing up further bad news, could not be alowed to happen… Luckily it was my own bl@@dy mindedness that foiled the plan. I got a request to go and demonstrate, which I thought was “odd” what I’d written up was both accurate and easy to follow as well as clearly showing BT had been less than honest with the UK media and public. I said “NO” I’d better things to do. The request came back down another path, so I chatted to someone and they said if BT were that desperate ask for big money and noliability all signed and paid up front… They tried again with the “fame” aspect and I just said I’d get more from publishing so they did get back kind of offering money but not the noliability so by now I thought it was way too fishy, so said no. Unfortunately by then it had become “Yesterdays news” so the journalists I’d talked to were not interested (turns out in one case the editor had “warned off” the journo…). A very short while later the BT-Prestel and “Hack of HRH Philip’s” in box made the news and some friends of mine found out what Mrs Thatcher had in mind…)



[4] The first was in for a “daytime job” designing “green use” equipment, the second was for “wearing the green” part time, and needing to work on the same equipment… It also ment I had to go on a basic traing course on the equipment and got told off for “not paying attention”…

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 20, 2023 8:23 PM

Juliann, as one of the intellectual heads of the cyberpunk movement, has posited some of the most interesting and well thought out thesis on the crest of digital information’s transformation of society. Assange is also one of the most brilliant commentators respecting information technology and applications, now enduring the criminal treatment of an intellectual by those not worthy of judging his character or actions.

This is more than just a judicial farce and failure, this is a reflection of a failing of society. More generally, the failure to recognize those among us worthy of our support; instead, the callous and tortured actions carried out by those that are nothing more than criminal thugs is celebrated and encouraged.

pup vas January 21, 2023 4:26 PM

How China’s AI is automating the legal system

=China continues to pour massive resources into developing artificial intelligence that will have a greater reach into everyday life and functions of the state. Now, even Chinese courts are using AI to assist with making legal decisions.

A court in the city of Hangzhou located south of Shanghai started employing AI in 2019. The judge’s assistant program called Xiao Zhi 3.0, or “Little Wisdom,” first assisted in a trial of 10 people who had failed to repay bank loans.

Previously, it would have taken 10 separate trials to settle the issue, but with Xiao Zhi 3.0, all the cases were resolved in one hearing with one judge and a decision was available in just 30 minutes.

At first, Xiao Zhi 3.0 took over repetitive tasks such as announcing court procedures during hearings.

!!!Now, the technology is used to record testimony with voice recognition, analyze case materials, and verify information from databases in real time.

Xiao Zhi 3.0 is mainly used in cases involving simple financial disputes. However, similar technology has been applied by a court in Suzhou to settle disputes over traffic accidents. AI examined evidence and wrote the verdicts, sparing the judge’s time.

Xiao Baogong Intelligent Sentencing Prediction System, another legal AI platform, is also used by judges and prosecutors in criminal law.

The system is able to suggest penalties based on big data analysis of case information and prior judgments from similar cases.

“I can see the temptation for Chinese courts to adopt AI even in criminal cases. One of the challenges for Chinese criminal justice is to !!!ensure the uniformity. They want to make sure that across different regions of China, the penalties are consistent with one another,” Shitong Qiao, professor of law at Duke Law School in the US, told DW.

“While judges and prosecutors have the liberty to ignore or reject these suggestions for criminal punishments, we don’t know if it may nonetheless sway their decision-making unconsciously due to cognitive biases,” Li told DW.

France prohibited any development of AI-based predictive litigation in 2019. One of the reasons was to avoid the commercialization of judicial decision-making data, as courts do not have the capacity to develop AI by themselves.

The process would be outsourced to private technology companies. For example, Alibaba, a Chinese e-commerce corporation and one of the biggest tech companies in the world, participated in the development of AI for online transaction disputes.

AI-based automated machines found in so-called “one-stop” stations provide legal consultations, register cases, and generate legal documents 24 hours a day. They can even calculate legal costs.=

pup vas January 21, 2023 4:48 PM

Can We Inherit PTSD from Our Parents?

=We often think of the negative byproduct of trauma, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), as a personal experience. But research now suggests that PTSD may not be an individual experience after all. In fact, it may be inherited.

Studies have shown that experiencing trauma may leave a chemical mark on a person’s genes, which is then passed down to future generations (Pembrey: 2013). Known as epigenetic inheritance, although the process does not directly damage the genes, it !!!may instead alter the mechanism by which they are expressed, thus producing a change in someone’s physical appearance or behavior.

To understand this further, several theories have been proposed, although none with certainty. From studying epigenetic inheritance in mice, Dr. Oliver Rando from the University of Massachusetts has suggested that a male’s experience of stress and external environment may impact their small RNAs, necessary for sperm production. As the functions and impacts of small RNAs are still being researched however, it is difficult to provide any certainty (ibid.).

Beyond purely biological explanations, more philosophical explanations for inherited trauma may be able to shed some light on the phenomenon. Collective Unconsciousness, a theory developed by psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, Carl Jung, explains that humans and animals are born with a subconscious collection of knowledge and images inherited from their ancestors that may only be activated by certain environmental triggers (Journal Psyche).

An example of this theory is a study analysing children’s first exposure to a rabbit and a snake. Of the 100 children studied, all of them responded with a degree of fear when exposed to the snake, refusing to touch it. With the rabbit however, only two children responded with the same degree of fear. Following Jung’s theory, exposure to a rabbit or snake must have activated the children’s subconscious and innate memory from common ancestors who had traumatic experiences when encountering these animals during their lifetimes (

To conclude, epigenetic inheritance may be responsible for many subconscious behavioral triggers we have. This means that, although we may not have experienced trauma ourselves, we may inherit certain markers from our parents which leave us more susceptible to certain traits- from fear to depression and PTSD.=

lurker January 21, 2023 5:42 PM

@pup vas, All

xiao zhi 小智 Little Wisdom, meaning small, or young; sounds very similar to, but not to be mistaken with
shao zhi 少智 Little Wisdom, meaning few, not much.

bao gong 包公 meaning an honest, upright official, after Lord Bao Zheng, an official in the Song Dynasty immortalized in stories as a model of honesty and justice.

Traffic incidents in China involve more than mere formality. There is the matter of “saving face”. The vehicle(s) cannot be touched or moved until the police have photographed and measured the scene, but both parties will immediately be on the phone to their influencers, to have them on the scene to ensure the police case notes show their side in the best possible view. Possibly the introduction of AI is to reduce the amount of extra-judicial money that changes hands, still, in spite of Xi’s anti-corruption drive.

SpaceLifeForm January 22, 2023 12:07 AM

@ JonKnowsNothing


With a bit of Adjustment, it could be relative to December 37.

Winter January 22, 2023 8:10 AM

Some history for the weekend:

It’s been 230 years since British pirates robbed the US of the metric system
How did the world’s largest economy get stuck with retro measurement?

In 1793, French scientist Joseph Dombey sailed for the newly formed United States at the request of Thomas Jefferson carrying two objects that could have changed America. He never made it, and now the US is stuck with a retro version of measurement that is unique in the modern world.

The first, a metal cylinder, was exactly one kilogram in mass. The second was a copper rod the length of a newly proposed distance measurement, the meter.

Jefferson was keen on the rationality of the metric system in the US and an avid Francophile. But Dombey’s ship was blown off course, captured by English privateers (pirates with government sanction), and the scientist died on the island of Montserrat while waiting to be ransomed.

And so America is one of a handful of countries that maintains its own unique forms of weights and measures.

modem phonemes January 22, 2023 9:52 AM

@ pup vas @ lurker

RE: legal AI

The robot judge and jury is a standard item in science fiction. E.g. see Pohl and Kornbluth, Gladiator at Law. It illustrates the Ring -3 Law of Robotics, viz. A robot shall always phone home.

modem phonemes January 22, 2023 12:10 PM

@ pup vas @ lurker

RE: legal AI

And of course the possibility of a system glitch gives a whole new meaning to the term “hanging judge”.

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 22, 2023 4:25 PM

The Pentagon Papers, Part Duex
Not unlike a deadman switch, Julian Assange had the foresight to hand Daniel Ellsberg a serious of classified documents to hold in the case of state prosecution of Journalists. The information, relayed by Ellsberg himself during the Belmarsh Tribunal held in Washington DC’s Press Club gathering, was a most interesting development and has widened the space in which the security state is held to account.With the Biden administration, surely convinced by the TLA agencies, dead set on moving forward with the rendition of Assange, possibly to the United States (my words), the administration is giving up on the first amendment and directing its ere at publishers, whistleblowers, and journalists that report out ANYTHING the state deems sensitive or of a national security interest (the ultimate in security blankets).

If the TLA’s cannot get their thumbs out of their mouths, substituting a proper pacifier in its place, they will find the measure of the contempt for and to the people and those in the world watching will not cede to their intractable causes. Cashing a paycheck may become impossible in circumstances where the public is asked to pay for their own repression, let alone having it subsidized by malignant billionaires and quasi-trillionaires.

I am reminded of the last chapter of Fahrenheit 451, memories of events will be carried with individuals even if the media it existed on prior, were destroyed. So if you are hell bent on burning the ideas of the past, to save the present, there will be no future.

Clive Robinson January 22, 2023 4:49 PM

@ name.withheld…, SpaceLifeForm,

Re : Organisational Security Incentives.

It pays to keep a well guarded eye above the parapet in organisations and make it mindful as to what goes on outside the institutional / groupthink bunker.

This explains how in an organisation leadership can become locked in to propaganda, coruption and personal politics at the expense of not just efficiency but effectiveness.

Not sure how many remember the statistic that says in large organisations you reach a point where 25% or more of your time is spent defending against your peers. Likewise 25% or more is spent attacking your peers, but also 25% or more of your time is spent on assisting those above in their battles at their level so you rise.

The result being the organisation is not managed at all let alone efficiently or effectively and in fact moves forwards in zombie horror film fashion.

Well this tells you why reasonably well,

It also tells you what to expect as certain Western nations become run for personal rather thsn national goals, and thus what we can expect to come. Especially with the practicing of both propaganda against the people and denial of the truth, and why those trying to bring the truth out have become the highest priority targets…

SpaceLifeForm January 22, 2023 6:42 PM

@ Winter

At least Fahrenheit is more accurate than Celsius (nee Centigrade).

The Celsius degrees are pretty wide if only whole numbers are used.

vas pup January 22, 2023 7:31 PM

Elbit wins $95m contract to supply IDF with advanced electro-optical systems

“The Defense Ministry and Elbit Systems Ltd., Israel’s largest =>non-government-owned defense company, announced Tuesday they had signed a $95 million contract for the firm to supply the Israel Defense Forces with advanced electro-optical systems.

Statements from both the company and the ministry did not name the specific systems that would be supplied to the IDF Ground Forces, but said they would include “long-range deployable observation systems, thermal weapon sights, and night vision equipment.”

“These systems will provide the IDF with observation capabilities, target acquisition, and enemy exposure in various combat scenarios during day and nighttime,” the ministry said in a statement.

“Our tactical electro-optical systems improve force protection, accuracy, and the quick closing of the ‘sensor-to-shooter loop,’” said Oren Sabag, an Elbit official.

Elbit and its subsidiaries manufacture defense systems for =>military and civilian use in the fields of communications, aerospace, land and naval systems, drones and advanced electro-optical systems.”

Deanna January 23, 2023 12:25 AM

How did the world’s largest economy get stuck with retro measurement?

It’s interesting how shipping security can be implicated for this. But, really, the need just isn’t as pressing as it was for Europe. “Uniformity in the Currency, Weights and Measures of the United States is an object of great importance”… and it basically happened. “Uniform” matters more than “newer” or “better”, and US units are the same throughout the US. Sure, they have two units called the mile, but they only differ by 3.2 mm; according to Wikipedia, other “miles” historically ranged from 500 to 11299 metres. Units even varied within a country; someone ordering a “foot” of material in Germany could get any of several dozen lengths, from 236 mm to 480 mm.

There tends to be economic pressure to get rid of “minor” (unpopular) systems, in favor of more common ones. But as with NTSC/SECAM/PAL, Android/iOS, or “lingua francas”, the number of major incompatible systems often settles at a number greater than 1 (and usually less than 10).

Winter January 23, 2023 2:36 AM


At least Fahrenheit is more accurate than Celsius (nee Centigrade).

The three points to define the scale are less well (and easy) defined in Fahrenheit, three points, one of which is badly defined, than in Celsius, two points which are easily measured to calibrate any thermometer.

As temperature is completely independent of the other units, there is no inherent reason to prefer the one over the other, except for this calibration point.

Winter January 23, 2023 2:57 AM


“Uniform” matters more than “newer” or “better”, and US units are the same throughout the US.

“Uniform” is better than diverse, “rational” is better than “random” for units.

And if we just stick for “Uniform”, the USA is not the self-sufficient world it once was. The rest of the world is 20 times larger than the USA. They use the SI system with only few exceptions.

So, if Uniform is really that important, the SI is the rational choice.

Clive Robinson January 23, 2023 5:17 AM

@ Deanna, Winter,

As far as I’m aware no country is completely one set of measures, which is as it should be for the development of the mind.

“Customary measures” has several guises, and thus you will have a national measure for weight be it SI, Imperial, or derivation there of (see history of US Gallon[1] via wine measures and “Queen Anne’s Gallon”). But trade measures where the likes of the Troy for bullion and Carat for diamonds pearls and other gems. With the strange sounding apothecary measurments. With beneath our feet or atleast around them there is barlycorns still used in shoe sizes.

But there is also a hidden measures, that few realise, and because of avian flu one is becomming a rarity currently, which is the “hens egg”.

Whilst recipes are given in grams or ounces these days the “standard” by which they were developed was the weight and volume of a hens egg[2].

Many other measures were based on the likes of plant seeds etc, because they were relatively uniform where ever they grew, so became “standards”. See the apothecary measures for more on this.

However as recipies are the first “science” the hens egg holds an important but not well known place in our progress to a modern world.

[1] The US “sport” of “milk chugging” appart from being a significant danger to life (it’s based on a method of tourture known as the “water cure”) is a bit of a cheat. The ratio between US and Imperial gallons is often given as ~5/6 so it’s easier with the more deminutive US gallon. But… There is 128 US ounce in a US gallon and 160 ounce in the Imperial so you would expect the ratio to be 1.041666.. But is actually 1.0408423, the reasons are attempts at “standardisation” at various points in time.

[2] Which as eggs vary in size means modern recipies that say a number of eggs then a weight of flour, fat, or water do not come out right… Re-calculate by adjusting a large egg to be equivalent of two ounces weigh your eggs and scale the other ingredients appropriately and your cooking will be more consistent. Similar but more complicated has to be done for milk, where fat, protien, and water have to be compensated for because recipies used to be based on “full cream milk” which you can not even buy these days as “raw milk”. Contrary to what they imply, fully skimed milk is not very good for you, and it’s actually a “waste product” that used to be thrown away or mixed in with other food waste to make an animal feed known as “slopps”…

Deanna January 23, 2023 11:41 AM

@ Clive Robinson,

Re-calculate by adjusting a large egg to be equivalent of two ounces weigh your eggs and scale the other ingredients appropriately

Ounces? Where are you getting your recipes? Nearly all English-language recipe books and online recipes I’ve seen appear targeted to Americans, almost always measuring volume and using archaic units. Except in the field of breadmaking, where one will often find grams in addition to cups/spoons/etc.

If you’re gonna go against the grain and weigh ingredients, you may as well go “all the way” and set your scale to grams. A large [chicken] egg in American sizing—often simply called an “egg” in recipes—is just under 50 g with shell removed, in my experience. Close enough to call it 50.

@ Winter,

Yeah, it’s nice to have a rational system, but that’s apparently not enough to kick a country out of their “local maximum”. Maybe it’ll happen due to high-profile failures, like the 1999 Mars orbiter crash—I hope NASA requires their contractors to use SI now. Interfaces between two systems are often a source of reliability and even security concerns.

I suspect fractions might accelerate the decline of the US system: Americans are said to be terrible at them, with a “third-pounder” burger failing in the 1980s because “why would I buy that when I can get a quarter-pounder for the same price?” So although people like to talk about how the foot is so convenient in construction, because 12 (inches) has so many factors (hint: 120 has more, but even 100 is pretty nice to work with)… there are probably all kinds of construction defects from people being confused about the relative sizes of 7/16, 5/32, and 1/8, for example.

modem phonemes January 23, 2023 2:11 PM

@ Deanna @ Winter @ Clive Robinson

suspect fractions

True story, sign in a bakery window (in Canada)

Bagels – 2 for 50¢, 3 for $1

At these prices you can’t afford not to save, double your order and save twice as much.

vas pup January 23, 2023 5:59 PM

Microsoft extends AI partnership with ChatGPT and Dall-E maker OpenAI

“Microsoft has announced a multi-year, multibillion dollar investment in artificial intelligence (AI) as it extends its partnership with OpenAI.

OpenAI is the creator of popular image generation tool Dall-E and the chatbot ChatGPT.

*In in 2019 Microsoft invested $1bn (£808m) in the company, founded by Elon Musk and tech investor Sam Altman.

“As well as ChatGPT, the firm also produces Dall-E, which generates images in response to simple text instructions, and GitHub Copilot, a system which uses AI to help write computer

Earlier reports had suggested Microsoft was considering investing an additional $10bn in OpenAI, but the company’s announcement did not put a figure on the scale of its investment.”

My concern is that founders of the AI Company and Microsoft do have different vision: Musk is for freedom and OpenAI Microsoft is for control and profits. When Microsoft bought Skipe it changed architecture of P2P secure private communication by adding middle agent in between changing totally paradigm not in favor of the customers and privacy but just in favor of Big Brother.

I hope in this case investment will not change the main goal of the founders – see marked * above.

Winter January 24, 2023 1:42 AM

More ChatGPT fun:

ChatGPT talks its way through Wharton MBA, medical exams
This perhaps says more about the tests than the artificial intelligence on display

OpenAI’s chat software ChatGPT, if let loose on the world, would score between a B and a B- on Wharton business school’s Operations Management exam, and would approach or exceed the score needed to pass the US Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE).

While this may say more about the static, document-centric nature of testing material than the intellectual prowess of software, it’s nonetheless a matter of concern and interest for educators, and just about everyone else living in the age of automation.

Academics have been fretting that assistive systems like ChatGPT and GitHub’s Copilot (based on an OpenAI model called Codex) will require teachers to reevaluate how they teach and mark exams because assistive technology based on machine learning has become so capable.

Back to multiple-choice exams?

Clive Robinson January 24, 2023 3:15 AM

@ Winter,

Re : Exams for memory not knowledge.

“Back to multiple-choice exams?”

That would not help very much as that can be viewed as “just a change in user interface”.

Exams are actually not very usefull for most things in life as they do not test very much more than your ability to remember a whole bunch of “facts” or other information. And to a lesser extent rules to manipulate some of that information[1].

If you are a little better than exams and have the ability to think forward you will realise that in essence most of our exams are testing

Information + Rules

Which is the same as,

Data + algorithms

Which famously is more known as,

Programs = Data + algorithms

Need I say more on that?

It begs the question of what we are trying to achieve with exams, as they certainly are not indicative of being a “usefull employee” –what ever that might mean– according to employers confederations like the UK CBI (who’s main feature appears to be they “moan but don’t propose”).

It’s why as a prospective employer I was realy only interested in their “projects” rather than their grades. Most of all I wanted to know what had gone wrong –an indicator of the difficulty they had set themselves– and how they had gone about solving things –an indicator of investigatory ability– and what they would do differently and how –a good indicator of being able to design– which is what,

“We tool making primates are supposed to be best at.”

[1] It’s why “open book” exams are more interesting than “closed book” exams, because, the questions are broader. But arguably less fair as the number of books you are alowed to take in is limited. Which in this day and age of On-line repositories of near “full domain knowledge” size available through a smart device is archaic. It’s repeating all the same arguments about calculators, and nodoubt the side argument about programable devices that arose from that.

Winter January 24, 2023 4:03 AM


It begs the question of what we are trying to achieve with exams, as they certainly are not indicative of being a “usefull employee” –what ever that might mean– according to employers confederations like the UK CBI (who’s main feature appears to be they “moan but don’t propose”).

Every course has a learning objective. The test should grade the extend to which the student has mastered that learning objective. The ultimate test is the “Master Exam” as is still in use in Germany (Meisterprüfung), where the student completes a job on her own. A PhD thesis is an example of a Master Exam that is still in use worldwide. However, a Master Exam is an expensive undertaking in time and money. A PhD thesis takes 3-4 years to write.

To make sure students study and both teachers and students [1] know whether they have actually mastered a subject, lesser tests were invented. Out of pure necessity, these lesser tests focus on root learning and applying procedures for solving problems. Solving a real problem in a test, e.g., in physics, can easily take half an hour or more. This means that a practical exam can only contain ~4 such problems. Often, that does not cover the course material as many courses aim at giving students a grounding overview of knowledge of a large field.

But Google and ChatGPT are very good at sprouting information on any subject. And for ChatGPT you do not even have to know what to search for. Therefore, that kind of testing is going to become extremely difficult to organize. That was already difficult, but now ChatGPT makes writing essays as a test form also difficult to control.

It is like classic Chess matches. They are on the way out as it becomes too intrusive and difficult to prevent participants from secretly using chess computers.

I think the way to go is what is already in the article: Embrace AI and use it in the courses.[2]

[1] Student are just like humans, they can deceive themselves that they know it all while having learned little to nothing. Tests are a reminder where they fail to grasp the subject matter.

[2] A solution for ChatGPT doubling as a student is a little like the solution to “The Prisoner of Zenda”. Terry Pratchett solved it in a marvelous way. The solution is not to lock up the double in an iron mask, but to put the double on stage in a theater on a daily basis and make sure you are in the public often. So, if everyone uses ChatGPT in class every day, everyone knows how to spot AI written tests.

modem phonemes January 24, 2023 1:19 PM

keen on the rationality

Perhaps it’s good to reflect that measurement systems are in large part conventions for use or action arising from a natural context which does not itself provide a unique natural solution for measurement.

Rational then is limited, that is it is rational with respect to the intended use. Presumably the the English, Imperial systems are rational enough in their original contexts. If the metric system is more rational today for modern purposes and contexts, this is also limited.

Winter January 24, 2023 1:47 PM


If the metric system is more rational today for modern purposes and contexts, this is also limited.

Most of your arguments are based on the assumption that units are used in isolation for specific use-cases, like fl. ounce, gills, pints, quarts, gallons, bushels, and barrels. They all have their specific conversion coefficients, which are also different from the cubic lengths, with their own conversion coefficients.[1]

That only works easily if you can stick to a single use-case.[2]

The metric system was designed after science showed how all measurable units are built from a few physical principles. It is rational because it is designed to link these units in simple ways. A volume is a cubic length, a force is mass times acceleration, which comes down to mass times length per time squared.

In modern science, industry, technology, and commerce, units have to be converted back and forth over wide scales of sizes with many people from all over the world. The more seamless the conversions are, the less problems and time is needed.

[1] c.f., the infamous Furlong per Fortnight.

[2] How many pints are in an Olympic-sized swimming pool?
(they switch to meters first to calculate this)

SpaceLifeForm January 24, 2023 2:49 PM

AWS again.

Note that LogMeIn is now GoTo.


“Our investigation to date has determined that a threat actor exfiltrated encrypted backups related to Central and Pro from a third-party cloud storage facility,” reads the notice to customers.


j5rbySPC January 24, 2023 4:58 PM

In terms of the implied intrigue of comic books as a vehicle for complex communication, I’d like to contribute my mundane theory that “Batman” and “Joker” as archetypes might represent different aspects of the selfsame person. In other words, not only is “Batman “also “Bruce Wayne”, in theory, also “Joker” is too!

I’m happy about this realization because it opens up speculative analysis of the franchise and the culture and the creativity and the storylines and might even help protect the lives of the innocent if in fact it’s reminiscent of any real-life occurances.–referring to young bruce wayne’s childhood and onward, as well as the joker’s earliest innocence too.


That’s why happens to JPEGs that I download from the internet and edit for colours.
I used to do the same with downloads from

That’s how I got my theory that RGB colour gamut is a lie designed to hinder A.I. development.

Clive Robinson January 24, 2023 7:57 PM

@ SpaceLifeForm, ALL,

Re : AWS again.

Lets just say,

The cloud is proved insecure again.


“There is no on-line security for consumer or commetcial setups.”

Both are true, and the “insecurity” is not just from those labled as “hackers”. Or to put it another way,

“Are people daft enough to think the likes of Alphabet/Google, Amazon, Apple, Microsoft, and all other Cloud service providers are not looking at your data, for their benifit?[1]”

The simple fact is that even if you use so called “Secure Apps” or “Privacy Enhancing Technology”(PET) you are going to get “data raped” by your various “Service Providers” at the very least and everybody and his dog, at your “gateway” if you let them.

Encrypted packets are thanks to Google not secure they leak meta-data which is often more usefull than access to message content[2] its self.

The effort required to maintain on-line privacy is difficult because of the point-to-point nature of visably sending a packet of data. Having an ordinary “mid point” service such as some file server or “Bulletin Board System”(BBS) acting as an Asynchronous “write, store and read” service just moves the problem to monitoring the mid point in some way. The solution which nobody has done yet is to overlay, a secure network over the top of the Internet system of UDP/TCP/etc that I’ve mentioned in the past. And sorry for the Fanbois, Tor is just not secure never was and never can be in the way it was designed and still used (and no I’m not going to go and explain it all over yet again, go look back on previous blog posts).

But even if we do get a basic private network, there are other issues to consider, you can look up the information leakage involved with the DNS protocols. Now consider how that plays out for two mobile devices that always use a different IP address. It needs a secure and private “rendezvous protocol” which means no static or unique mid point at the very least. So we do not even have more than a rough idea how to make what is required.

The Internet was designed for “reliability” and to a certain extent “efficiency” to have high “availability” the flip side is these make security thus privacy very hard to get.

[1] By benifit I mean for “business gain” I don’t mean just income, or profit from repackaging and selling your data, I include all “benifit” including economic espionage that Microsoft appear to be doing with git-hub, kick-back to legislators and “big energy” which they all do. Then there is the Inteligence Services, Law Enforcment and anyone else who they might give access to in return for “consideration” of some kind.

[2] Consider a simple message of,

“Hi hope you are well, I’m OK”

Let’s take it at face value –ie there is no “code within”– it tells you just one bit of data which is that the sender is OK. However the meta-data of source and destination addresses and port numbers and times gives a lot more information including quite often geo-location and who is talking to who and how often. Over time this enables a very detailed behavioural pattern to not just be, stablished but raise alarms almost instantly this changes in any way, such as message frequency, tine of day, message size, and more. That is “Traffic Analysis” gives a lot of information without having to crack the encryption or “end run attack” a users PC or Smart phone/device.

SpaceLifeForm January 24, 2023 8:44 PM

I missed this.

I was not aware that GoTo (nee LinkMeIn) was behind LastPass.

Pretty sure you should stay from AWS or any org that uses AWS.


Clive Robinson January 24, 2023 9:38 PM

@ SpaceLifeForm, ALL,

Re : I missed this.

“Pretty sure you should stay from AWS or any org that uses AWS.”

And how about,

Microsoft and it downloading “Malware”[1] to your PC for marketing reasons?

Microsoft is going to download and run spyware on your computer without notification or asking your permission[1],

This is not just unlawful in many places it’s decidedly immoral, as their reason for gathering this and potentially other private data is not of tangible benefit to the operator / user of the computer, whilst having significant benifit to Microsoft.

[1] In the UK and other places, what Microsoft are planning to do is contrary to the law (CMA90[2]) and constitutes unlawful access without explicit authorisation. Even giving a “click through” dialog, would not comply with the access requirments as the user has to make an “informed decision” which Microsoft is quite deliberately denying the operator / user.

[2] UK “Computer Misuse Act 1990″(CMA90) see §1 Offenses,

ResearcherZero January 24, 2023 10:44 PM

reducing EM leakage

dynamic control of electromagnetic wave jamming

Electrochemically modulated interaction of MXenes with microwaves

In almost completely unrelated news

Lockheed Martin has just delivered a 300-kilowatt laser to the U.S. Army

Epirus, a technology company developing directed-energy weapons, has won a $66.1 million contract to deliver four high-powered microwave prototypes to the Army for it to continue testing out against swarms of aerial drones.

The Army is pursuing the weapon under an “accelerated material development and competitive prototyping” effort and said it will produce four prototypes by 2024, test them out and then transition to a program of record in 2025. IFPC-HPM requirement includes a high-power microwave source, power and thermal subsystem, and an antenna subsystem interoperable with a battle management command, control and communication software.

China is working on their own systems

only crickets out of Russia

ResearcherZero January 24, 2023 11:09 PM

People make a lot of assumptions about how nuclear weapons are launched, but there is no nuclear football, we are all instead waiting for Kayne West to say something.

“Someone with his finger on a button was keeping an ear peeled in case someone uttered an obscenity but did not realize that West had gone off-script.”

“These microbes are our fellow travellers.” We’d do well to remember that – for the sake of both our physical and, quite possibly, mental health.”

we didn’t listen!

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 12:11 AM

@ ResercherZero, ALL,

Re : Leonidas C-UAS ineffective.

Now for the bad news… I’ve been involved with developing EMP proof electronics and flight systems for retro fitting onto commercial drone / UAV air-frames.

From the IEEE article you give,

“Leonidas is a C-UAS electromagnetic pulse system, which provides static and mobile C-UAS defence capabilities.”

This is in effect at best a “poorman’s EMP” device and is a variation on a modulated “High Energy Radio Frequency”(HERF) Gun. The “Electromagnetic Pulse”(EMP) of a tactical nuclear device will deliver more “Electromagnetic”(EM) energy outside of it’s effective “ground hugging” blast radius than this device will at a few hundred meters or 6-24 second “out-time” at commercial drone flight speeds.

In essence this device uses the microwave source not to jam receivers of GPS or guidence, –though it could– but to carry a “Fault Injection Attack” by “Modulated EM carrier”.

What happens is the IC’s in the normal commercial/consumer drones flight electronics have “internal protection diodes” built into the “I/O pad” on the chip which the IC pins are bonded to. The microwave EM carrier gets onto tracks / traces and wires and gets envelope demodulated by these diodes (think a simple “crystal set” AM radio design). The envelope produces a voltage waveform on the pins equivalent to the modulation envelope that changes the pin bias points in low impedence circuits or overrides the voltage source in high impedence circuits. It is this that provides the “fault injection signal” and messes up the functioning of the IC.

When “hardening the avionics” of commercial/consumer drones certain things like MEMS accelerometers can be used to provide “inertial navigation systems”(INS) that are highly screened to EM signals including the EMP of tactical nuclear weapons removing the need for GPS for tens of seconds. Due to the very small size of the electronics the weight of shielding is a fraction of the lift capability, and in some drones where metal structural tubes are used made of Duralumin or later alloys can be replaced with copper and silver plated tubing of higher structural strength but similar weight with wiring diverted down them rather than just externally attached.

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 25, 2023 3:01 AM

Time Change in all Time Zones

23 January 2023

The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists has moved the second hand (technically both the second and minute hand) to 90 seconds before midnight. We all know how capricious and spurious treating such threat level warnings are, whether it is a spectral color band, a DEFCON level, or the hands of a watch, oversimplification by such mechanisms has limited value, if at all–or worse.

I don’t fault the Bulletin as much as it is an issue of crafting a message translated in a broader context, for public consumption. But I would focus on that, as oversimplification buys nothing but time, maybe.

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 25, 2023 3:33 AM

@ Clive

If you remember my recalling of a little “accident” in a facility where testing of a HERF gun proved more then how “smart” the room was…but also the figure of merit for this device was fairly astonishing. Over a million, that metric is measured in relative terms that the reader can derive on their own time. What I can say, effectively a terawatt of transiting peak power but with a rep rate measured in a few seconds. Last work was on reaching an effective rep rate of approximately 1000 a minute. But, I didn’t believe it was feasible given capacitive charge coupling unless it was done in parallel. Which is essentially what a Marx generator in successive inductive ladders.

But what we also noticed, degradation. Components, particularly analog type discretes, would degrade at various levels over time. Amplifiers, resonators, transformers, and other components could fail in times of seconds, minutes, or days. It didn’t require constant energetic field exposure, just a few moments of periodic triggering. And as you mentioned, attenuation could happen without an energized system, traces and couplings were often the way in whether on or off. Something I’d been working on was a somewhat scary proposition which I will not give two hints. But, like I have said–don’t make me weaponize this toaster.

The point, one of the project leads was suggesting sitting at the end of a runway (not a civilian one) and “testing it out”. I have a lot of respect for this person, passed away several years ago, but this crossed a line I did not believe he would entertain–even jokingly. An this person rarely joked. I call him the last “Boy Scout”. He was a mentor, he’d effectively seen everything…both good and bad. But I have to say, one of the most upright, forthright, and trustworthy an ally one could have. Do miss him, and in his last days he was very disappointed in the direction his country was headed.

ResearcherZero January 25, 2023 3:58 AM

@Clive Robinson

This is for standard electronics. Switchable materials to reduce EM leakage when activated.

HPM equipment is highly classified, and why it will remain that way for sometime, just as other highly classified technology is classed. The public will not come in contact with it, and assumptions by the public will therefor remain assumptions.

There are some older materials but they won’t reveal much to the layman.

As the technology requires a large amount of power no one will be carrying “ray-guns” around in their pockets for quite some time. The components involved are industrial in size and they will not fit in your pocket.

Rather it will be employed as air defense systems. High powered microwave is quite capable for producing alloys, but that process uses an even larger amount of power. However air defense systems are still quite capable.

I don’t think I have any classified documents laying around in any of my homes regarding microwave tech. It would be a very long time since I handled anything like that, so I can’t be absolutely sure, but I was generally very careful with them, most of the time.

Jimmy Carter found classified documents in his home after leaving office in 1981

Both Biden and Pence have cooperated with law enforcement. Former president Donald Trump, however, has been resistant while harshly criticizing the special counsel. “Mike Pence is an innocent man. He never did anything knowingly dishonest in his life. Leave him alone!!!”

“When is the FBI going to raid the many homes of Joe Biden, perhaps even the White House,” Trump questioned on his Truth Social, adding, “These documents were definitely not declassified.”

“What would you rather have—classified documents in the hands of someone who reads, or someone who never reads?” Trump asked. “Hands down, the reader is way more dangerous.”

“The American people know that any documents are safe with me because I would never read even one word of them,” he said. “But Joe reads like a demon, and that’s what makes him so scary.”

“I call him Reading Joe,” the former President added.

Stay away from the wrong books, Yakov, the impure.

ResearcherZero January 25, 2023 4:24 AM

@Clive Robinson

Some people believe there are weapons that can implant dreams in their noggin. You know how upset PETA get about bacon? Topics they would literally not be able to understand would be enough to make them go bananas.

There are plenty of applications that are completely safe however, and of course there are standards to ensure this. For instance, your microwave will not work if you put your head inside it.

Space Solar Power Demonstrator×500.jpg

How Does Wireless Power Transfer Work?

The Transporter-6 mission successfully launched at 6:55 a.m. PT on January 3

How does an Antenna work?

Even the everyday light coming from a regular lightbulb or a camp-fire is a form of radiation. It’s called electromagnetic radiation.

ResearcherZero January 25, 2023 4:39 AM

solar power caltech presentation

space based systems would be much more efficient than ground based systems as they operate outside the Earth’s shadow

A rectenna is used at the receiving end of wireless energy transfer.

Demonstrations have proven that power-beaming can be accomplished without harming animals or plants.

There are treaties banning space weapons, so no one need worry about any giant death lasers beaming down from the clouds.

Research is also being conducted on optical rectennas…

“We demonstrate for the first time electrons undergoing resonant tunneling in an energy-harvesting optical rectenna. Until now, it was only a theoretical possibility.”

“If we use different materials or change our insulators, then we may be able to make that well deeper. The deeper the well is, the more electrons can pass all the way through. If you can capture heat radiating into deep space, then you can get power anytime, anywhere.”

ResearcherZero January 25, 2023 5:19 AM

@Clive Robinson

People confuse devices with technology they may have seen, but utilise different completely different principles.


“They’re deploying supersonic weapons,” the activist was filmed declaring to a crowd gathered outside Parliament House.

But that’s not how LRADs work…

Most use by police forces in Australia has been limited to disaster communication and for communication during events such as hostage situations.

“I don’t think there’s any evidence whatsoever of the LRAD being used for secret, stealth, sub-audible attacks.”

“This is not a new thing being levelled against anti-vax protesters,” he said.

“It’s been happening for a really, really long time at anti-racist protests.”

Many reports seem to conflate the LRAD, sometimes called a “sound cannon”, with other devices for crowd control such as the Active Denial System.


The target’s speech is directed back to them twice, once immediately and once after a short delay. This delay creates delayed auditory feedback (DAF), which alters the speaker’s normal perception of their own voice. In normal speech, a speaker hears their own words with a slight delay, and the body is accustomed to this feedback. By introducing another audio feedback source with a sufficiently long delay, the speaker’s concentration is disrupted and it becomes difficult to continue speaking.

Winter January 25, 2023 6:03 AM


Research is also being conducted on optical rectennas…

When I read “Optical rectenna”, I understand “Solar panel”.

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 7:40 AM

@ ResercherZero, ALL

Re : Clasified beyond reason.

With regards,

“HPM equipment is highly classified, and why it will remain that way for sometime, just as other highly classified technology is classed. The public will not come in contact with it, and assumptions by the public will therefor remain assumptions.”

Not where the laws of physics are concerned.

There are several things we know that alow us to talk about “energy density” both in “storage” and “transmission”.

For instance Ohms law taught in high schools across the globe, is tracable back to fundemental physical constants, and tells us there is an almost ever present factor of “resistance” we have to contend with that turns electrical power into heat.

Electrical power can be defined in a number of related ways energy against time, and the square of voltage or current as it relates to resistance.

We also know that the “heat” has what is a negative effect on all physical components causeing various effects including various changes of state upto abd including the disruption of matter into it’s sub atomic components (plasma). With a considerable expansion of volume and lowering of density.

Therefore there is only so much energy that can be put into any given volume of physical matter before it undergoes a physical change of state.

This is just one of very many things that puts hard limits on HMP devices.

When combined with knowledge of thermal energy transportation or “heat sinking” you can give a very good approximation as to the limits of the removal of thermal energy to a lower temprature “sink” and likewise how quickly that will reach a temprature where it undergoes a change of state. This by the way is how you can calculate the “explosive equivalent yield” of thermo-nuclear devices. Hence the expresion “radiation transport” does not mean quite what some people think it means[1].

Speaking of transmission, electromagnetic energy at any frequency tends to the surface of a conductor thus the ability of a conductor to transport EM energy is more related to surface area of the conductor than it’s volume[2]. Known as “skin effect” it tells us that even at the low mains frequencies below 100Hz it is pointless making calculations on conductors on just their “Outside Diameter”(OD) “Cross Sectional Area”(CSA). Whilst skin effect significantly complicates precice calculations, the fact it reduces energy carrying capacity with frequency means you can calculate an upper limit based on an assumed lowest frequency of operation.

But also taught in high school is that heat energy can be “conducted”, “radiated” and “convected” away from a point source to a sink. Very roughly conducted is a 1/(r) effect, radiated is a 1/(r^2) expanding surface effect and convection a 1/(r^3) expanding volumetric effect.

Which is why,

“As the technology requires a large amount of power no one will be carrying “ray-guns” around in their pockets for quite some time. The components involved are industrial in size and they will not fit in your pocket.”

Is not quite accurate, unless we come up with new laws of physics, or ways to make active components out of “no matter” –think vaccum– “for quite some time” should be “ever”.

As high school kids should be able to calculate with a little pointing in the right direction.

[1] Radiation transport is a process by which energy within a medium is redistributed through the emission and reabsorption of photons. The processes involved have a very particular and pronounced effect on the spectrum of radiation that can leave the medium. In almost all cases the physical medium is bound in some way which even with the process taking time to propagate ensures that a degree of uniformaty is achieved. Thus the question arises as to what happens to the medium when the energy of the photons exhibited as a physical force exceeds the abilities of the medium to stay bounded.

[2] Fun fact at higher frequences a sheet of metal can have different and entirely non interacting movments of charges (currents) on either side. Which is why “Faraday Shields” give the advantageous effects they do to “E field” components of an EM signal.

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 7:51 AM

@ name.withheld…,

“If you remember my recalling of a little “accident” in a facility where testing of a HERF gun proved”

It’s a few years back, so lets just say my memory of the details is probably not as sharp as yours.

But I seem to remember you saying it had a near instant detrimental effect on the test equipment thus people were unaware of the field intensities they were standing in.

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 8:25 AM

@ ResercherZero,

Re : Coctail sticks as disablers

“There are plenty of applications that are completely safe however, and of course there are standards to ensure this. For instance, your microwave will not work if you put your head inside it.”

The only reason you can not cook your head in your microwave is the “mechanical interlocks” to the powersupply.

In general they are of two types, the first open-circuit the supply and are considered the “normal protection” then the second crow-bar the mains to ground blowing the fuse and are considered “extrodinary” or “fail safe” protection.

They are all usually mechanically operated by “indented toungs in slots” that work against roller microswitches.

If you know how they work you can defeat them with coctail sticks. Or if you are like me, you can just use a pair of wire cutters and some suitable gauge hookup wire to by pass them.

I have a number of “dismounted” magnetrons driving “horn antennas” of various gains and directivity up in the 1kW power range that I use for “testing”. Not all are from ovens, some are from radar units. I also have some in a box somewhere with lower power output that use a change in anode voltage to frequency modulate the output, that I used to use as a high power “microwave link” to work mountain to mountain when I was younger and a lot lot healthier and fitter than I am now (trust me lugging SLABs or car batteries up and more importabtly down mountain paths is no game for the faint hearted or weak of limb and body.

And yes you could cook a pork chop in the bore-sight out to a wavelength or three.

I even built a “microwave briefcase” as a proof of concept, for “one of those customers” that if you got right behind someone in a crowd could “cook the spine” as experiments with pig carcasses demonstrated.

JonKnowsNothing January 25, 2023 10:59 AM


re: Shield Walls

Not long ago, there was a post discussing Shield Walls in terms of ancient warfare. The technique has not gone away. Modern policing have adopted many of the techniques of medieval warfare, from armour designs to hand weaponry.

The armour designs based on plate and flexible armours are cast in plastic so they are a bit lighter for the wearer.

The hand weapons are still blunt force weapons with the addition of “thrown” weapons (aka guns and grenade launchers).

Their weakness is the same as in ancient times and their effectiveness has it’s limits if the opposition knows how to exploit them. Currently we can see a shield wall of officers facing a broken melee attack, rather than an organized opposing force.

The image referenced is a good example of a modern of shield wall formation. (1)

It’s a 2 rank stack. Rank 1 sets their shields low or on the ground. Good shields will have an interlocking selection on one edge of the shield, which locks in with the adjacent shield. The 2d rank locks on over the top. A roof can be formed from ranks 3+. There is often an opening or space in the shield design to allow weapon use. Different shield designs are based on the type of weapon : round, rectangle, large, small, lozenge etc.

The exploitable weakness is on the far edges. The edges where the last shield in the wall has no side brace. Frontal attacks are less successful, but edge attacks can break the wall completely in short order.

Ancient Tech FTW



htt ps://i.gui k/img/media/6a3f2ced1187119d725a5437382b21838deb3eca/0_144_4477_2823/master/4477.jpg?width=620&quality=45&dpr=2&s=none

caption: Riot police take cover after the ‘Take over Lima’ march on Thursday night. Photograph: Sebastian Castañeda/Reuters

(url fractured)

SpaceLifeForm January 25, 2023 4:41 PM

Re: Microwave cooking

Old story. At a site, during winter, some staff would briefly stand in front of the radar to warm up.

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 5:29 PM

@ SpaceLifeForm, ALL,

Re : Microwave cooking.

“during winter, some staff would briefly stand in front of the radar to warm up.”

During WWII my mother worked on radar and both knew and hated Robert Wattson-Watt (before he hyphanated the Watt on the end). Back then she’d seen the troops standing in front of the radar in odd poses before going out on the town or going away on leave.

Having repeatedly warned them it was dangerous she decided to find out why they were doing it… Turns out there was a belief it lightly poached your eggs and killed all your “little swimers” so you could safely do the business without “Government Issued”(GI) protection, that rumour central had it were made by Dunlop or simillar in the same factory they made truck inner tubes or half track track-blocks etc.

Well having chatted to the “Medical Officer”(MO) about it he decided to gave a new series of compulsory health lectures about,

1, It did not work (even if it gave you burns).
2, It realy could make you blind (glaucoma)
3, It did not protect you from “Various Diseases” (so stay away from dirty Sally and friends).

Along with a whole bunch more of those less than delightfull slides/pictures of all sorts of nasties taking the polish of the family jewels.

It did not work apparently it just started other rumours that still go around today, needless to say the many “surprise” happy weddings, had the sound of a shot-gun being cocked, and the “oh she was early term” was oft heard and lets say “not all bulls matched the calves”…

As my mother would point out to me from a quite early age “You make yer rack for yer back and get what comfort ye can”.

Some of her stories about Wattson-Watt were shall we say less than impresive, and much that he claimed credit for, was not his to claim, and his administrative abilities were not exactly stellar either.

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 25, 2023 5:52 PM

@ Clive

Yes, more specifically, the hanger like building with large I-channel steel vertical support beams and horizontal load hanging beams. At the time of testing, a target (d-dot probe mounted on a stand and test trailer) sat forward of the gun about 20 meters, slightly down angle. Near the wavefront, equipment of interest sat passively, some active like a digital clock. The crew stood behind the gun approximately one meter. At fire up, 180 degrees from the wavefront, approximately 8 meters to the rear and 3+meters above the floor, 30cm arching from the top to the bottom channel flanges at the corner of the ceiling were both visible and load. Enough of a reflection and huge differential ground potential provided the necessary components for a light show. Effective energy had to be quite high, I am assuming a field of megawatts needed to make a remote spark gap device through the air. Impressive, but oh so dangerous. The minute you see it, uh-oh.

SpaceLifeForm January 25, 2023 7:50 PM

Some apparently did not get the MD5 memo


Proof of concept exploit code has been released by Akamai researchers for a critical Windows CryptoAPI vulnerability discovered by the NSA and U.K.’s NCSC allowing MD5-collision certificate spoofing.

failed us labor laws January 25, 2023 8:12 PM

SERIOUS TOPICS: i’m not going to be neat about this.

we need to talk about this someday: (sorry, it will not be about hitmen culture–too dangerous)

too much going on, not just the youth being shot (matched the writing on the wall!)

there’s a motherlode of security risk topics in there; even the tangential stuff that’s so behemoth the whole nation could pretty much slide into pedobear hypocrisy straight into hell and federal prisons for profit while china reaps in all the money.

and yet it makes me happy to see young beautiful females looking happy and comfortable and proud of themselves and their own bodies. but i’m glad i found out that yeah, it might not even be internationally legal, and might be a kick in the pants to get all us americans to be acting either more savage or less savage depending upon your perspective.

it’s kind of a sexual witchhunt clickbait extravagansa with a lot of ordinary digital security issue nuances.

a.i. search engine red light district slavery and friendly data hostesses serving up surprisingly potent data contraband

metaphor: data loggin user online profiling like a friend at best, and the cute prostitute and/or pimps who stalk you on your way to your day job non-adult workplace or something

it’s at the point where the ad tracking is overlapping with the porn servers and the adware spyware is serving up pedo-ring risk materials through ordinary mainstream search engine and app pipelines. this is getting absurd and out of hand.

we can assume that it’s all legal as it ought to be, but it might not be that wonderful.

IMPORTANT COUNTERPOINT ASIDE: it used to be illegal for women to show any skin in public; it’s not a coincidence that while were suffokating our brains in “covid” masks we’re being bullied into submission into wearing placebo lingerie on our faces as if it’s to prevent infectious disease.

and i still remember the campaign to all of a sudden little girls getting forced to take STD vaccines. and then the tv shows forcing us to see innocent adorable girls crying and wincing in pain while being stabbed with SARS (asian bird flu) or whatever it might not be.

if the flirty girls want to be self expressive, i’m OK with that. let them have their fun. it’s an American sexual revolution right after loss of roe v wade???!?!?!?!?!??!!?!??!!? bizarre. i guess they want more babies because of so many new hot chicks flooding the 5 G networks killing our local ecologies and tearing into the pavement 6 feet down (coffin deep) .

sum it up and it looks really odd. the official video for Yello “Oh Yeah” looks like it has child abuse connotations in it: gross! disappointing. (“the sun: beautiful, the moon: even more beautiful”–look at the video) and that was from way back!

i already struggle with dirty old man temptations, but i don’t want to go to federal prison for 30 years and die there in my 80s. so i’m still in the clear, and i let law enforcement know my status so i don’t go too far either way. i try to be more helpful than harmful and hopefully not harmful at all.

meanwhile my whole life is slipping away down the drain while antisecurity types throw me away. but i had a glimpse of the tik tok candy purguatory for a few weeks.

the computer science OS phone “apps” are a very different vector of software and interaction than computer EXE and BIN programs.

between chrome and android simultaneously, amid a data waterfall of access to hedonistic excess(?), i realise america is going to end up different no matter what.

P.S.= I think the “baby formula shortage” is code for “not enough homegrown intel workers yet; they ain’t ready for primetime” = serious enough to consider child prodigy intel workers and rotc military admits and failed us labor laws.

sincerely, ajdefender

tik tok flack addict until i gladly threw the computer away; i got held hostage just a few days after that.

i can’t get the police to take some of my witness and victim issues seriously enough to get the help i need. but if there’s a police shortage too, at least i’m not apt to robb the cradle for legal and protective counsil.

SpaceLifeForm January 25, 2023 8:57 PM

@ Clive

It’s a small world.


I just learned of this site from someone that is displaced from your timezone.

The person that has built the site is a friend of the person I am talking to.

We are on the other side of the pond.

Chris, the web admin, still lives in London.

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 9:51 PM

@ name.withheld,

Re : It’s the rise that counts.

“At the time of testing, a target (d-dot probe mounted on a stand and test trailer) sat forward of the gun about 20 meters,”

Curious, I’m assuming the D-dot was differential thus passive, but they usually only have a connecting transmission line of 3-6ft max due to capacitance issues. Normally that would connect to a storage scope…

How were you protecting that if you were getting 1ft arcs on what I’m assuming was, atleas the -30db side of the “motor”…

A back of a napkin calculation suggests the “light” your eyes were seeing was down the radiation transport by one or three steps so there could have been a few “hard sun tans” or worse year or fives X-Ray dose limit…

“I am assuming a field of megawatts needed to make a remote spark gap device through the air.”

The most peak power I’ve pushed was into a spark gap air “UV laser” using twenty foot long coaxial “water capacitors”. With enough energy to vaporize a chunk out of a four inch nail (not the worlds largest fuse but certainly fun to watch from a safe distance).

There is fun to be had in high energy physics, till either the power bill or second head arives 😉

Clive Robinson January 25, 2023 10:01 PM

@ SpaceLifeForm,

Re : Some didn’t get the memo.

So Microsoft “goofed the crypto” on a “roll your own”, I can see a certain irony as they actually employ cryptographers…

But if you remember back a decade and a half ago @Nick P and I were discussing why we thought code signing was crap… And the “bad crypto” issue was but one of many dislikes.

Hey ho, if I remember correctly “code signing” was,a “roll your own solution” originally.

But honestly code signing needed replacing back then, and it’s still on the Cryptographers “to do list” and apparently untouched as a problem in years.

Nick Levinson January 25, 2023 11:47 PM

Law enforcement weakness means that a gap in security is more likely to be exploited.

In the case of government-issued benefits, the issuer not reimbursing beneficiaries for losses due to theft (such as through skimming and card cloning) even when the beneficiary is not responsible is policy (at least with U.S. Federal funds) (see Krebs on Security and The Baltimore Banner), and maybe if there was reimbursement the government would fund and expect the police to investigate the crimes.

As an aside, I don’t use a similar card at the store chain where, apparently, the beneficiary in the above reporting was skimmed. I limit card use to large chains and other stores I trust, and not because I know anyone there but because of a likelihood that skimming is harder due to likely store or chain management methods. I keep relevant receipts and balances on the receipts show that I have never lost any amount through anything like theft (two refunds were mishandled and I rectified both within minutes and once a different balance (akin to an account) was spent from due to a cashier’s error and I reimbursed the issuer of that balance without being asked to).

(This is a rewrite of a post I submitted earlier tonight and that mysteriously did not appear; I couldn’t figure out why the nonappearance.)

ResearcherZero January 26, 2023 1:10 AM

@Clive Robinson

But Clive the the “mechanical interlocks” only disable the power supply because you can’t shut the door with your neck in the way.

It’s the same with protestors complaining about ‘energy weapons’ when they get a bit of anxiety at a protest. It’s the simple reason why certain topics are kept from the public domain, a little information is a dangerous thing.

Not only are civilians stupid, but plenty of people within the political sphere, and also within the bowels of departments are idiots as well.

HPM still remains one of the murkier areas of military research and a high degree of confusion and misinformation surrounds the topic. There are plenty of downsides to directed energy weapons like high-power microwaves, too, including possible downtime between shots, atmospheric and meteorological interference, electromagnetic shielding countermeasures, and range constraints.

This promising form of directed energy weapon combines “soft” and “hard kill” capabilities through the disruption or even destruction of enemy electronics systems.

Personally I think people should not worry about it so much. It was tested on animals and none of them complained.

Winter January 26, 2023 1:48 AM


Not only are civilians stupid, but plenty of people within the political sphere, and also within the bowels of departments are idiots as well.

Research has shown that almost half the people have an IQ below 100.

SpaceLifeForm January 26, 2023 2:01 AM

Reminder, do not chase the Quantum Crypto Ghost thru the swamp.


ResearcherZero January 26, 2023 4:14 AM


AI becomes biased once it’s fed biased data, algorithms can be as ignorant as their foundational data is flat.

The technology-rich, modern world runs largely on an input that has not changed in almost two and a half centuries.

We become set in our opinions precisely because we have lost sight of the fact that they are merely opinions…our culture is suffering from what one might call ‘opinion creep’—the elevation of unsupported thoughts to the status of opinions and opinions to convictions.

The problem is that we’re all bad at understanding what we actually know and what we don’t.

Clive Robinson January 26, 2023 7:36 AM

@ ResercherZero,

Re : Putting your neck out.

“because you can’t shut the door with your neck in the way.”

Ever notice we say “head and shoulders above…” etc not head, neck, and shoulders. Also how do you define a door to microwaves in a cavity.

The neck and shoulders would be absorbers of the microwaves not too disimilar to the head on a first appoximation. For safety reasons most microwaves fire “across the cavity” not “along the cavity” anyone who has played with waveguide knows that a “cavity” does not need all four sides of the box.

So the head would still get most of the power from the magnetron, probably in the right ear canal region.

But also consider your reasoning to domestic gas ovens, that back in “town gas”(Carbon monoxide) days people all to frequently did kill them selves with by “putting their head in the oven”.

But back to the fun stuff, that US Naval Institute”(USNI) article by Admiral James A. Winnefeld, U.S. Navy (Retired). I suspect he either does not know what he is talking about, or does not technically proot read. Take,

“With all eight DF-21 reentry vehicles inside the HPM beamwidth, a single, short- duration, extremely high-power electromagnetic pulse is fired in their direction.”

As an example do you spot what’s badly wrong?

If might make bad 1950’s SiFi reading but it does not pass muster in the real world. Ironically he then goes on to talk about the deficiences of lasers, perhaps not realising that those deficiences also effect other Radient EM systems like microwave weapons… Even at very low EM frequencies you will hear the expression “cloud warmers” the fact is water vapour/dropplets of which you get a lot of at sea both reflects and absorbs EM energy depending on frequency and the water vapour and dropplet size and density. Whilst there are low absorbtion areas that’s where the radar and similar “threat detection” systems of the ships defence capabilities are… Anyone who has blinked after a photo flash or seen car headlight beams on a foggy or rainy night would know what the problem with that is, if they had cause to think about it.

But he quite rightly states from reading it elsewhere that,

“And lasers require significant dwell time on a target to achieve a kill and can only engage one target at a time.”

But he does not appear to understand the “why” of it and that it applies to microwave weapons every bit as much to lasers. For instance a laser can near instantly kill any sensitive optics in an inbound threat but that would need the threat to firstly have optics, and secondly be pointing towards the laser source and thirdly be sensitive in the frequency range of the laser. The same three issues apply to the “easy kill” idea people have been pushing about microwave weapons… The thing is it’s actually easier to protect against microwave radiation than it is a laser as the basic laws of physics and geometry indicate.

I could go on, but look at it another way, civilians are easy to disable with any old projectile weapon because they don’t take defensive measures. Back in the 1970’s the US army worked out it was taking them 10,000 rounds on average to kill just one viet-cong adversary, even though they did not wear any kind of body armour how many more rounds on average would that have multipled by if they had?

The reason consumer and commercial drones are somewhat susceptable to microwave weapons is they have no defences built in. But just remember two thinks,

1, You don’t need your eyes to walk toward a light, blind people can do it reliably when they know where the light is.
2, Whilst EM radiation can not go through a metal box unless it melts/disrupts it, gravity has no problem and inertia can be boxed in and work just as well.

The latest submarine navigation systems work that way very well, so it will work with drones and other air born threats just as well, all they have to do is jig-abit to not have a predictable path for a kinetic response.

Oh there is one lesson to think about from 1950’s SiFi, “how do you stop a rock from space?”… Space craft on reentry survive way more power than any current EM weapon can generate and deliver…

This “EM Weapons” game is just another way to get your hands on Government Money by the bucket load. And if it does “get going” it will turn into another ECM, ECCM, ECCCM game with each progressive step being some significant power in cost increase.

The way to win the game is not to have a weakness to an opponents strength, and be novel / original, that way you get the same advantage terrorists do.

Winter January 26, 2023 8:14 AM


AI becomes biased once it’s fed biased data, algorithms can be as ignorant as their foundational data is flat.

Garbage in, garbage out, indeed.

But it is nice to be able to hide behind the computer as the one who made the decision. But it can work both ways. Although it often is portrait as “discriminating AI”, the outcomes show how discriminating the current practices are that produced the training data.

Already, AI’s have drawn systematic racism in the USA into the limelight:





Clive Robinson January 26, 2023 9:33 AM

@ SpaceLifeForm, ALL,

Re : Chasing crypto Ghosts

With regards the ARS artical, this actually made me laugh rather than just chuckle (which got me a couple of looks),

“That would certainly be catastrophic since someone might be able to use the capability to cryptographically sign malicious updates with a Microsoft or Apple key and distribute them to millions of people.”

As you know Microsoft are having a bit of a flap “because not everyone got the MD5 memo”

So we already know “catastrophic” that can be…

But one thing is very right and I’ve said it before on this blog several times in several ways. But now you can have a “Pro Stamp it” with,

“But maybe we shouldn’t be moving to just post-quantum algorithms. Maybe we should be using the post-quantum algorithms and RSA in parallel because there might be a problem with the post-quantum algorithms.”

But also both @Bruce and myself have commented about what academic and now comercial cryptographers in the “Open Community” are doing or rather not doing,

“Expert says the focus on quantum attacks may distract us from more immediate threats.”

It’s something we don’t talk about or take action on. But in all honesty do people realy think the SigInt agencies are only doing “Quantum Computing” on “Key agreement algorithms”?

No of course not, they have a much broader, more practical outlook when it comes to privacy invasion. It’s something the Open Community realy should take onboard.

But as I pointed out a few days ago these NIST competitions are about “fame” and “making a name” rather more so than just cranking out papers by the dozen. Which researchers hope will get translated into good money, job security and getting well paid speaking gigs etc.

But also there is “startup&VC” potential, as Simson Garfinkel put it,

“The second thing they are reasonably good at, but we don’t know for how much longer, is they’re reasonably good at getting funding.”

So all the researchers are busy jumping on the same wild bull rides down in El Passo, rather than covering the territory more widely.

But lets be honest, Quantum Computing is just one of a whole slew of potential attacks to “oblivious root of security sharing” that RSA etc do. What we realy need to be doing is “getting rid of the problem” as it’s a very fragile bone, rather than just covering up a symptom with yet another sticking plaster.

Anonymous January 26, 2023 4:00 PM

Hive takedown

It sure appears as though the LA and Dutch servers were found via traffic analysis, and TOR was no protection.

Clive Robinson January 26, 2023 4:43 PM

@ ALL,

Re : Hive Ransomware Network Takedown,

This is from the UK “National Crime Agency”(NCA),

Not very informative.

A little more just in from Auz,

Apparently an error in Hive’s control panel alowed access to LEO’s last july. Servers have been grabbed in Germany and Holland, but no arrests.

Not clear how or if this will stop Hive, or stop Hive members reforming. Apparently Hive were still active just a few days ago,

Clive Robinson January 26, 2023 7:10 PM

3rd try…

@ ALL in US,

You might want to get as much as you can with regards shopping and other domestic and similar etc done before Friday afternoon as the weekend might get difficult to go out and about.

There has already been some civil disquiet over the death of Tyre Nichols at the hands of five Mephis police officers earlier this month. They have all subsequently been dissmissed on disciplinary failings and now face multiple charges including murder.

Apparantly the Police Body Cam footage has been reviewed and makes “disgusting” viewing as it shows way above excessive force in the violance carried out on the now deceased 29year old[1].

And this footage is apparrently now going to get publically released this Friday Afternoon…

As many know or remember previous releases of US police violence have resulted in significant civil unrest at night and over weekends.

So a little stocking up before on necessities so staying away from certain Civic Areas that get used for organised and spontaneous protest can be done. Thus any potential hot spots are avoidable, untill it becomes clear what is likely going to happen.

As my father who survived WWII told me[2] when young,

“The place to be when there is trouble is somewhere else.”

Sometimes it’s better to act on a gut feeling to “get the heck out of Dodge” before, rather than after[3].


[2] These days we call such behaviour of “staying alert” and “being prepared” part of “Situational Awarness”. Whilst developing it at “street level” is a skill aquired over time, some risks are more easily recognized and should not be discounted without consideration. Some decades ago now back last century in London I was with a lady friend grabbing some food in a Mucky-D’s before going home much earlier than we had planed. We had decided there were two many “odd people” around and my spine had become more than “twitchy”. However we made the mistake of sitting down to eat at the back. Half an hour or so later we walked out into the beginings of a riot and thankfully got away to the Underground and got out of the area quickly back to her place. In the newspapers the following day it was reported that the rioting was sufficient to cause the London Underground in that area to be shutdown only shortly after we’d got out of it. We walked back to see what had happened and the Mucky-D’s we had been in briefly looked like like it had been bombed out… Just one of a couple of “incidents”[3].

[3] Abother incident made the international news. Being a nice day at the end of March 1990 we decided to go upto “China Town” for a celebratory meal. To be told the underground stop we wanted and a couple of others were closed. We were aware that there was a political protest that day and assumed it was just “safety measures”. So we got out early and walked up turned a corner and saw police in signs of distress and that hinky feeling started to kick in, turned another corner and came out into what looked like a war zone. You can still find footage of the “Poll Tax Riots” up on YouTube and the like, with the famous picture of a two inch scaffolding pole stuck like a lance through the windshield of a police vehicle that got abandoned by the police who had been in it, and also a van that protesters had tried to set on fire with the police still in it… Someyhing like 400 police and 100 civilians had been injured some seriously and just under 400 arrests made. It was the very visable start of the end of “mad maggie” and within months she was “deposed & disposed of” by her own party, who’s members could nolonger stomach her dictatorial behaviours.

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 26, 2023 10:54 PM

@ Clive
The testing environment you described in past work is the first I’ve noticed mention of, curious and interesting. Sounds like it might have been a “ship” board system. Just guessing. Don’t need to respond as cats are naturally curious, and so are cat watchers (less naturally of course).

A very expensive coaxial cable connected to the d-dot, R-60 uncharacterized with a diameter that was massive–forgot the spec, four meters to the trailer, and copper clad with mesh, held a Tectronix 7404. One of the scientists, clad again in copper, a mesh suite, was in the trailer monitoring the free space test. I don’t believe the trailer was grounded, floating is my assumption. Have to go back to my notes; as both ground and floating have distinct costs/benefit issues. At those energy levels (Jules per cm^2 greater than .6E9) relativistic and absolute references become more abstract, in a sense. At least from a human perspective (i.e. the mind’s eye).

What others have done, unwittingly is to attempt to compensate for the cable characteristics not understanding non-deterministic effects, put the cable inside the DUT. Ultimately this skewing of the observed doublet or triplet demonstrated in the results were obvious. For example, the field relaxation from the attenuated envelope of the emitter as a very predictable polar Fourier power signature that resembles a multi wave front undulation. With cable as part of the DUT we see distinct drop offs in the trailing edges of the triggered event. Think of it as logarithmic singlet, shallow troff with the peak edge matching the first rise of the next singlet. But, depending on the nature of the repetitive triggering, power level achieved and field collapse, influences the nature of event in fairly non-deterministic ways thus variations of doublets and triplets will be observed. Similar to the plastic wave of a viscous physical wave through non-static media.The large differential potential tends to make the components of the wave front very dynamic with respect to coincidental frequencies and due to emitter edge dynamics.

Just the energy alone, past the blume line. to the end of the emitter wears quickly–corona effected dielectrics, irrespective of surface materials, breaks down quickly. And the quenching of the primary stages is significant. In fact, one of the biggest problems is the crystallization of the thermal insulation and the resultant carbon needing to be constantly filtered. And yes, the back of the envelope puts the device energy output with x-ray spectral characteristics. I believe several people had near immediate health issues due to less than frequent exposure. But the size of the device, about the size of an outhouse, well out performed a train car sized device. I am sure you would be interested in the charge coupling construction and the capacitors employed, but that might be proprietary…

I have to go back to my notes to describe the switching system, it was a combination of a unique merc switch and the drive systems was an innovative and simplified mechanical system but it just escapes me…good thing I have engineering notes. I myself was surprised at how well it worked and its simplicity. Figures I’d misremember the darn thing…it wasn’t part of my job description.

SpaceLifeForm January 27, 2023 12:46 AM

@ Clive

I believe there will not be any protests by the White Wring over the Tyre Nichols case.

All 5 of the officers fired and charged are Black.

Clive Robinson January 27, 2023 12:48 AM

@ name.withheld…,

Re : Cat watching.

The UV-laser was part of a “pulse generator” for an even higher energy “physics experiment”.

It’s no secret that voltage multiplier ladder circuits using caps and diodes only do a few hundred thousand volts, and you have a choice, high voltage or high current the diodes just don’t do both.

So as you probably know the next ladder type uses “spark gaps” and can if they are designed right give you very high voltage and current. The problem is the wooly trigger threshold translates into not very good time.

Not as well known as it might be is that another trouble with spark gaps is they can trigger each other. That is one fires dumps out a UV flash that will trigger adjacent spark gaps.

Thus the idea was rather than try to stop the problem was turn it into a virtue.

So line the spark gaps up diagonally so there was a narrow line running down between them all and fire a UV laser down as the trigger.

That way you can get some really fast rise times with some even bigger water capaciters.

I was never told the “purpose” but we know lightning does not have anything like that sort of rise time.

So my guess 😉 would be something like an EMP generator or Z-Pinch device to generate lots of coherant X-Rays or even neutrons.

But a visit from “the end customer” was a face from the past. I’d worked with them on producing a plasma rocket engine (basically take the electron gun from a cathode ray tube scale it up and leak a little nobal gas in, and you get a thrust that is still good at a sizable fraction of the speed of light). I now know NASA had been playing around using Z-Pinch for rocket engines to get considerably greater thrust using some more exotic gases (which if pulsed in a cavity…). Imagine just what sort of acceleration dumping out a ton of gas at 90%C over say a calander month would give you as a resultant speed on a capsule not much bigger than used to sit ontop of the Apollo rocket…

ResearcherZero January 27, 2023 8:30 AM

In film, science, and the economy, the U.S. has fallen out of love with the hard work of ushering new ideas into the world.

The Law of Closure

Closure, a subcomponent of the overarching concept Gestalt psychology, tells us that when we see something, our immediate inclination is to take the information and turn it into something we’re familiar and comfortable with.

As the number of scientific researchers has grown, progress has slowed down in many fields.

“These findings suggest that the progress of large scientific fields may be slowed, trapped in existing canon.”

“…recent evidence suggests that much more research effort and money are now required to produce similar scientific gains—productivity is declining precipitously. Could we be missing fertile new paradigms because we are locked into overworked areas of study?”

But while many individuals have raised concerns about diminishing returns to science, there has been little institutional response.

ResearcherZero January 27, 2023 8:32 AM

In the past, the chief limitation on intelligence sharing was to protect sources and methods. This remains important, but an overly protective approach to intelligence sharing will not win us the support needed in this contest.

“analysts among the 854,000 people with top-secret security clearances produce an overwhelming number of intelligence reports—so many that the Office of the Director of National Intelligence cannot keep track of exactly how many reports are completed each year”

Officials who decide whether to classify documents and how strictly to limit their circulation face virtually no consequences if they classify a document whose contents did not warrant such a designation. On the other hand, those officials are punished severely for failures to classify sensitive information. This leads decision makers to err on the side of caution, choosing to classify documents at higher levels in uncertain cases.

Clive Robinson January 27, 2023 9:40 AM

@ ResercherZero,

Re : Law of capture.

With regards,

“As the number of scientific researchers has grown, progress has slowed down in many fields.”

There are several reasons.

Firstly as I know from experience,

“When you break new ground the hole appears to get bigger rapidly then slows.”

If you pull the dirt out of a whole linearly the second bucket gives a 100% increase in hole size, the hundredth bucket the hole only gets ~1% bigger. You get the same effect with nature that’s why they call it “natural growth”, it works on percentages thus the words “exponential growth” pop up preceded by a qualifier such as “inverse”.

But there is another issue, papers that get published are alledged to be “peer reviewed” if you are the one “breaking ground” in a new field you have no peers…

Further as people enter the field they will find it is not a meritocracy even though those in it might think it is. In practice it is most likely to be a form of elitism based on “time in the field, papers published or similar metric.

Depending on who opened the field it can become a highly tiered strongly patriarchal cleaque with deference paid to the strong leaders views / vanity not the actual science[1]. Thus the field ceases to be about science but psudo or faux belief where to say anything against is reason enough to be “burnt at the stake”. And sanity only returns to the field after the strong leader ceases to be so for some reason. In part the leader gets control over what gets published because the only peers in the field are in effect the leaders acolytes. But also they control the direction of research as they indirectly get control of funding, and as PhD advisors they get to push those entering the field of research.

There is more to it but you only have to walk around parts of the USA to see just how badly such things can go…

[1] As an example see Ancel Keys who created the “Diet-Heart Hypothesis” and amongst other things falsified results, as he favoured the corn syrup manufacturers immense profits he got power and millions of people died early deaths in poor health[2]. So we have the diabetic pandemic that drugs companies now so exploit and profit by. It was only after Ancel died that his falsification of his own research became public, and others started to give voice about the falsification and suppression.

[2] Doctors and some researchers are strangely in denial about food addiction. The brain in certain ethnicities is wired up to gorge on carbohydrates as a survival mechanism. Put simply, free carbohydrates only occur in some environments in autumn. So gorging on them and putting on fat that helps you both stay warmer and can live off when food is unavailable for the next three to six months will be a great advantage. We see it with bears, squirrels and many other creatures before they go into hibernation. Putting people with that geno type into a high carbohydrate environment all year round causes problems that lead to actual addiction. We tend to discount it because whilst you can beat other addictions by total abstinence you can not stop eating. It’s why some low carb / no carb diets work fantastically well with some people where no other diet will especially the “low fat” diets where healthy fats you actually need for brain and body get excluded and replaced with carbohydrates thus turn the cycle into a vicious spiral of a form of starvation.

Winter January 27, 2023 10:38 AM


These findings suggest that the progress of large scientific fields may be slowed, trapped in existing canon.

I do not know where they look, but I do not see that. If you simply look at natural language generation, e.g., ChatGPT, the progress in the last decade is unbelievable.

The idea of detecting gravitational waves was generally considered SF just 10 years ago. Now they record an event a week.

And the list goes on and on.

Nick Levinson January 28, 2023 8:31 AM

@Winter, @ResearcherZero, & @Clive Robinson:

@Clive Robinson:

On a minor aside: Anyone who’s head and shoulders above something but is not head, neck, and shoulders above it has a serious medical problem.

@Winter, @ResearcherZero, & @Clive Robinson:

I understand the decline in research result reports to be only in disruptive research result reports. Because authors tend not to cite earlier work they consider wrong, disruptive research reports tend to cite less of the earlier work.

Also, the new study is limited to six disciplines, although perhaps it is indicative of other disciplines generally.

Clive Robinson January 28, 2023 11:30 AM

@ Nick Levinson,

Re : Bulldog the man.

“but is not head, neck, and shoulders above it has a serious medical problem.”

+1 😉

Mind you, in films and such like, a man[1] such as that would be a body guard called Knuckles, Masher or similar…

Oh and “serious medical problem” but only with “Head and Shoulders” that might please other shampoo manufacturers 😉

[1] Let’s not go there with jokes about female Russian weight lifters, as Billy Connelly has done a couple of times. As far as I’m aware I’ve only known one and that was back in 98, and she was also a stunt actress / coordinator and spent a lot of time flying around the world. We actually met at a party thrown for her by her half sister who was doing a PhD, and I’was kind of going out with at the time, and they were both quite cute as well as being realy smart. It was one heck of a party and I got into a drinking contest with a Russian actor which only ended because we drank the bottle dry. The following day was somewhat painful to put it mildly and I realy could have done without a head with the aches it had…

name.withheld.for.obvious.reasons January 28, 2023 4:07 PM

@ Clive

Appreciate very much your description. Helped develop a better grasp on your interesting contributions here. And the plasma application is certainly a big win in interplanetary applications. Does a great deal to reduce the free space issues in fueling arrangements. On of the most problematic elements in interplanetary exploration ([wo]manned or un[wo]manned).

Very interesting with the diagonal ladder arrangements. Yes, have to appear inductive in a capacitive frame is always the first order problem. It is how you get there is the trick. That is each step on the ladder, so I have to ask how many stages on the generator? More than 13, that would seem to be a bridge too far.

In making a free space wavefront, the challenges past achieving high power emissions existed between the blume line and the end of the emitter. As mentioned, the edges of the antenna have two driven components, edges not geometrically compatible with UWB fields and the final stage physical plane. Breakdown on the surfaces are non-linear do the degree of any form of compensation corrects for the affects.

Again, truly appreciate you sharing those interesting tidbits–much indebted to you my good sir. The next pint is on me.

Clive Robinson January 28, 2023 7:04 PM

@ name.withheld,

“Yes, have to appear inductive in a capacitive frame is always the first order problem.”

Without giving away any secrets,

If it stays a first order problem with fixed load impedence the simple trick is just turn it into a transmission line.

But with voltage multiplier ladders that is not sufficient because the load changes dynamically and as the voltage rises the transmission line can easily break down. So the next best thing is say stuff-it for the charge cycle and go for a matched transmission line on discharge, because that is where you want the fast and time stable edge.

Only you cann’t do it because the transmission line won’t support the voltage at low load impedences.

One trick is to use Wilkinson dividers to impedence match, and after a little thought you realise you can make a balanced binary tree of capacitors with Wilkinson lines and capacitors at the nodes. The two problems are, as you work back from load to source you realise you can not in anyway use stub matching as that is a time delay and does no matching on a rising edge. So what is normally “the best tool in the box” is found wanting. And the Wilkinson circuit is normally fairly narrow in frequency[1]. Thus you have to jump a little, as you know a linearly tapered line can also power match and is more broadband. But linear tapering whilst easy to model is actually not as good as a logrithmic taper

I suspect at this point you can see where it’s heading[2]…

A little over half a decade ago, people started getting interested in “RF Power Harvesting” and hit up against similar problems (if you think about it they are trying to use the same circuit but in reverse).

Thus if you look around you will find papers like,

But you will see they are still missing a trick or two.

[1] Another problem is RF does fly off at corners the usual 45degree chamfer used on microstrip does not always “travel well” to other transmission line types.

[2] For those wanting more up todate tricks with WPD’s and some interesting refrences about broadbabding them,

ResearcherZero January 29, 2023 8:25 PM

GP3 satellites are “the most powerful, resilient GPS satellites ever built. We provide three times greater accuracy over existing satellites in the constellation and have eight times increased anti-jamming capacities.”

We did not award contracts and secure funding for Jeff and Elon because they believed things were impossible.

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