Classical Crypto with Lasers
I simply don’t have the physics background to evaluate this:
Scheuer and Yariv’s concept for key distribution involves establishing a laser oscillation between the two users, who each decide how to reflect the light at their end by choosing one of three mirrors that peak at different frequencies.
Before a key is exchanged, the users reset the system by using the first mirror. Then they both randomly select a bit (either 1 or 0) and choose the corresponding mirror out of the other two, causing the lasing properties (wavelength and intensity) to shift in accordance with the mirror they chose. Because each user knows his or her own bit, they can determine the value of each other’s bits; but an eavesdropper, who doesn’t know either bit, could only figure out the correlation between bits, but not the bits themselves. Similar to quantum key distribution systems, the bit exchange is successful in about 50% of the cases.
“For a nice analogy, consider a very large ‘justice scale’ where Alice is at one side and Bob is at the other,” said Scheuer. “Both Alice and Bob have a set of two weights (say one pound representing ‘0’ and two pounds representing ‘1’). To exchange a bit, Alice and Bob randomly select a bit and put the corresponding weight on the scales. If they pick different bits, the scales will tilt toward the heavy weight, thus indicating who picked ‘1’ and who picked ‘0.’ If however, they choose the same bit, the scales will remain balanced, regardless whether they (both) picked ‘0’ or ‘1.’ These bits can be used for the key because Eve, who in this analogy can only observe the tilt of the scales, cannot deduce the exchanged bit (in the previous case, Eve could deduce the bits). Of course, there are some differences between the laser concept and the scales analogy: in the laser system, the successful bit exchanges occur when Alice and Bob pick opposite bits, and not identical; also, there is the third state needed for resetting the laser, etc. But the underlying concept is the same: the system uses some symmetry properties to ‘calculate’ the correlation between the bits selected in each side, and it reveals only the correlation. For Alice and Bob, this is enough—but not for Eve.”
But this quote gives me pause:
Although users can’t easily detect an eavesdropper here, the system increases the difficulty of eavesdropping “almost arbitrarily,” making detecting eavesdroppers almost unnecessary.
EDITED TO ADD (11/6): Here’s the paper.