Crypto-Gram

October 15, 2014

by Bruce Schneier
CTO, Co3 Systems, Inc.
schneier@schneier.com
http://www.schneier.com

A free monthly newsletter providing summaries, analyses, insights, and commentaries on security: computer and otherwise.

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You can read this issue on the web at <http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-1410.html>. These same essays and news items appear in the "Schneier on Security" blog at <http://www.schneier.com/blog>, along with a lively and intelligent comment section. An RSS feed is available.


In this issue:


Data and Goliath Is Finished

"Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World" is finished. I recently submitted it to my publisher, Norton. In a few weeks, I'll get the copyedited manuscript back, and a few weeks after that, it'll go into production. Stacks of printed books will come out the other end in February, and the book will be published on March 9. There's already an Amazon page, but it's still pretty preliminary. And I expect the price to go down.

Books are both a meandering and clarifying process for me, and I figure out what I'm writing about as I write about it. Data and Goliath started out being about security and power in cyberspace, and ended up being about digital surveillance and what to do about it.

This is the table of contents:

Part 1: The World We're Creating
Chapter 1: Data as a By-Product of Computing
Chapter 2: Data as Surveillance
Chapter 3: Analyzing our Data
Chapter 4: The Business of Surveillance
Chapter 5: Government Surveillance and Control
Chapter 6: Consolidation of Institutional Surveillance

Part 2: What's at Stake
Chapter 7: Political Liberty and Justice
Chapter 8: Commercial Fairness and Equality
Chapter 9: Business Competitiveness
Chapter 10: Privacy
Chapter 11: Security

Part 3: What to Do About It
Chapter 12: Principles
Chapter 13: Solutions for Government
Chapter 14: Solutions for Corporations
Chapter 15: Solutions for the Rest of Us
Chapter 16: Social Norms and the Big Data Trade-Off

Fundamentally, the issues surrounding mass surveillance are tensions between group interest and self-interest, a topic I covered in depth in Liars and Outliers. We're promised great benefits if we allow all of our data to be collected in one place; at the same time, it can be incredibly personal. I see this tension playing out in many areas: location data, social graphs, medical data, search histories. Figuring out the proper balances between group and self-interests, and ensuring that those balances are maintained, is the fundamental issue of the information age. It's how we are going to be judged by our descendants fifty years from now.

Anyway, the book is done and at the publisher. I'm happy with it; the manuscript is so tight you can bounce a quarter off of it. This is a complicated topic, and I think I distilled it down into 80,000 words that are both understandable by the lay reader and interesting to the policy wonk or technical geek. It's also an important topic, and I hope the book becomes a flash point for discussion and debate.

But that's not for another five months. You might think that's a long time, but in publishing that's incredibly fast. I convinced Norton to go with this schedule by stressing that the book becomes less timely every second it's not published. (An exaggeration, I know, but they bought it.) Now I just hope that nothing major happens between now and then to render the book obsolete.

For now, I want to get back to writing shorter pieces. Writing a book can be all-consuming, and I generally don't have time for anything else. Look at my essays. Last year, I wrote 59 essays. This year so far: 17. That's an effect of writing the book. Now that it's done, expect more essays on news websites and longer posts on this blog. It'll be good to be thinking about something else for a change.

If anyone works for a publication, and wants to write a review, conduct an interview, publish an excerpt, or otherwise help me get the word out about the book, please e-mail me and I will pass you on to Norton's publicity department. I think this book has a real chance of breaking out of my normal security market.

https://www.schneier.com/book-dg.html
http://books.wwnorton.com/books/Data-and-Goliath/
https://www.schneier.com/book-dg.html

Previous postings about the book:
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/03/...
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/04/...

My essays:
https://www.schneier.com/essays/2013/
https://www.schneier.com/essays/2014/


iPhone Encryption and the Return of the Crypto Wars

Last week, Apple announced that it is closing a serious security vulnerability in the iPhone. It used to be that the phone's encryption only protected a small amount of the data, and Apple had the ability to bypass security on the rest of it.

From now on, all the phone's data is protected. It can no longer be accessed by criminals, governments, or rogue employees. Access to it can no longer be demanded by totalitarian governments. A user's iPhone data is now more secure.

To hear US law enforcement respond, you'd think Apple's move heralded an unstoppable crime wave. See, the FBI had been using that vulnerability to get into people's iPhones. In the words of cyberlaw professor Orin Kerr, "How is the public interest served by a policy that only thwarts lawful search warrants?"

Ah, but that's the thing: You can't build a backdoor that only the good guys can walk through. Encryption protects against cybercriminals, industrial competitors, the Chinese secret police and the FBI. You're either vulnerable to eavesdropping by any of them, or you're secure from eavesdropping from all of them.

Backdoor access built for the good guys is routinely used by the bad guys. In 2005, some unknown group surreptitiously used the lawful-intercept capabilities built into the Greek cell phone system. The same thing happened in Italy in 2006.

In 2010, Chinese hackers subverted an intercept system Google had put into Gmail to comply with US government surveillance requests. Back doors in our cell phone system are currently being exploited by the FBI and unknown others.

This doesn't stop the FBI and Justice Department from pumping up the fear. Attorney General Eric Holder threatened us with kidnappers and sexual predators.

The former head of the FBI's criminal investigative division went even further, conjuring up kidnappers who are also sexual predators. And, of course, terrorists.

FBI Director James Comey claimed that Apple's move allows people to "place themselves beyond the law" and also invoked that now overworked "child kidnapper." John J. Escalante, chief of detectives for the Chicago police department now holds the title of most hysterical: "Apple will become the phone of choice for the pedophile."

It's all bluster. Of the 3,576 major offenses for which warrants were granted for communications interception in 2013, exactly one involved kidnapping. And, more importantly, there's no evidence that encryption hampers criminal investigations in any serious way. In 2013, encryption foiled the police nine times, up from four in 2012 -- and the investigations proceeded in some other way.

This is why the FBI's scare stories tend to wither after public scrutiny. A former FBI assistant director wrote about a kidnapped man who would never have been found without the ability of the FBI to decrypt an iPhone, only to retract the point hours later because it wasn't true.

We've seen this game before. During the crypto wars of the 1990s, FBI Director Louis Freeh and others would repeatedly use the example of mobster John Gotti to illustrate why the ability to tap telephones was so vital. But the Gotti evidence was collected using a room bug, not a telephone tap. And those same scary criminal tropes were trotted out then, too. Back then we called them the Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse: pedophiles, kidnappers, drug dealers, and terrorists. Nothing has changed.

Strong encryption has been around for years. Both Apple's FileVault and Microsoft's BitLocker encrypt the data on computer hard drives. PGP encrypts e-mail. Off-the-Record encrypts chat sessions. HTTPS Everywhere encrypts your browsing. Android phones already come with encryption built-in. There are literally thousands of encryption products without back doors for sale, and some have been around for decades. Even if the US bans the stuff, foreign companies will corner the market because many of us have legitimate needs for security.

Law enforcement has been complaining about "going dark" for decades now. In the 1990s, they convinced Congress to pass a law requiring phone companies to ensure that phone calls would remain tappable even as they became digital. They tried and failed to ban strong encryption and mandate back doors for their use. The FBI tried and failed again to ban strong encryption in 2010. Now, in the post-Snowden era, they're about to try again.

We need to fight this. Strong encryption protects us from a panoply of threats. It protects us from hackers and criminals. It protects our businesses from competitors and foreign spies. It protects people in totalitarian governments from arrest and detention. This isn't just me talking: The FBI also recommends you encrypt your data for security.

As for law enforcement? The recent decades have given them an unprecedented ability to put us under surveillance and access our data. Our cell phones provide them with a detailed history of our movements. Our call records, e-mail history, buddy lists, and Facebook pages tell them who we associate with. The hundreds of companies that track us on the Internet tell them what we're thinking about. Ubiquitous cameras capture our faces everywhere. And most of us back up our iPhone data on iCloud, which the FBI can still get a warrant for. It truly is the golden age of surveillance.

After considering the issue, Orin Kerr rethought his position, looking at this in terms of a technological-legal trade-off. I think he's right.

Given everything that has made it easier for governments and others to intrude on our private lives, we need both technological security and legal restrictions to restore the traditional balance between government access and our security/privacy. More companies should follow Apple's lead and make encryption the easy-to-use default. And let's wait for some actual evidence of harm before we acquiesce to police demands for reduced security.

This essay previously appeared on CNN.com
http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/03/opinion/...

Apple's announcement:
http://arstechnica.com/apple/2014/09/...
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/27/technology/...
http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/...

Law enforcement response:
https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20140923/...
http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2014/10/...
http://online.wsj.com/articles/...
http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/...
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/25/...
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...

Orin Kerr essays:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...

Stories of other backdoors being exploited:
http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/security/...
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/04/14/...
http://www.cnn.com/2010/OPINION/01/23/...

Data on wiretaps and encryption:
http://www.uscourts.gov/uscourts/Statistics/...
http://www.wired.com/2014/07/...

Kidnapping story:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/...
https://twitter.com/xor/status/514582730126790656

The Crypto Wars:
http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/1.02/...

Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...

Other encryption software:
http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4790
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BitLocker
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pretty_Good_Privacy
https://otr.cypherpunks.ca/
https://www.eff.org/https-everywhere

Android encryption:
https://source.android.com/devices/tech/encryption/...

CALEA and follow-on:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/09/government-seeks

FBI recommends encrypting your data:
http://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/...

Golden age of surveillance:
https://cdt.org/blog/...

Supreme court on police data search and collection:
http://www.wired.com/2013/10/...
http://edition.cnn.com/2014/06/25/justice/...

Other essays worth reading:
http://www.cato.org/blog/old-technopanic-new-ibottles
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/...
http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/...
https://twitter.com/evacide/status/514233569980317697
http://edition.cnn.com/2010/OPINION/09/29/...
http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2014/10/01/...
http://www.lawfareblog.com/2014/09/...
http://www.salon.com/2014/10/06/...
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/22/...
https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~smb/blog/2014-09/...
https://keybase.io/blog/2014-10-08/...
http://www.wired.com/2014/10/golden-key/
https://news.vice.com/article/...
http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/oct/09/...
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/09/30/...

Pretty sad Washington Post editorial.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/...

Other ways Apple and law enforcement have to get at your data:
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/22/...


News

Good article on the insecurity of SHA-1 and the need to replace it sooner rather than later.
https://konklone.com/post/...

New Zealand is spying on its citizens. Edward Snowden weighs in personally.
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/15/...
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/15/...

The NSA and GCHQ are mapping the entire Internet, including hacking into Deutsche Telekom.
http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/...
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/09/14/...
http://www.emptywheel.net/2014/09/15/...

There's a vulnerability in SS7 that allows your cell phone's location to be tracked. What's interesting about this story is not that the cell phone system can track your location worldwide. That makes sense; the system has to know where you are. What's interesting about this story is that *anyone* can do it. Cyber-weapons arms manufacturers are selling the capability to governments worldwide, and hackers have demonstrated the capability.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/...
http://berlin.ccc.de/~tobias/...

According to court documents, Dread Pirate Roberts was identified because a CAPTCHA service used on the Silk Road login page leaked the users' true location.
http://krebsonsecurity.com/2014/09/...

In 2008, Yahoo fought the NSA to avoid becoming part of the PRISM program. It eventually lost the court battle, and at one point was threatened with a $250,000 a day fine if it continued to resist. I am continually amazed at the extent of the government coercion.
http://gizmodo.com/...

This is a terrible article on Vernam ciphers. If there's anything that confuses wannabe cryptographers, it's one-time pads.
http://io9.com/...

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has released a report titled "Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Readiness of V2V Technology for Application." It's very long, and mostly not interesting to me, but there are security concerns sprinkled throughout: both authentication to ensure that all the communications are accurate and can't be spoofed, and privacy to ensure that the communications can't be used to track cars. It's nice to see this sort of thing thought about in the beginning, when the system is first being designed, and not tacked on at the end.
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/09/...
Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Readiness of V2V Technology for Application:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/rulemaking/pdf/V2V/...

Jonathan Zittrain argues that our military weapons should be built with a kill switch, so they become useless when they fall into enemy hands.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/...

I found the story of the Federal Reserve on 9/11 to be fascinating. It seems they just flipped a switch on all their Y2K preparations, and it worked.
http://www.dailykos.com/story/2014/09/10/1328813/...

Interesting article on the arms race between creating robot "handwriting" that looks human, and detecting text that has been written by a robot. Robots will continue to get better, and will eventually fool all of us.
https://medium.com/message/...

Julian Sanchez of the Cato Institute has a lengthy audio interview on NSA surveillance and reform. Worth listening to.
https://soundcloud.com/libertarianism/...

Shellshock is a nasty vulnerability found in Bash. Inevitably we're going to see articles pointing at this and at Heartbleed and claim a trend in vulnerabilities in open-source software. If anyone has any actual data other than these two instances and the natural human tendency to generalize, I'd like to see it.
http://www.csoonline.com/article/2687265/...
http://www.zdnet.com/...
http://arstechnica.com/security/2014/09/...
http://seclists.org/oss-sec/2014/q3/650
http://linux.slashdot.org/story/14/09/24/1638207/...
https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=8366745

This is a good essay on the security trade-offs with cloud backup.
http://daringfireball.net/2014/09/security_tradeoffs

There's a Reuters article on new types of fraud using stolen medical records. I don't know how much of this is real and how much is hype, but I'm certain that criminals are looking for new ways to monetize stolen data.
https://news.yahoo.com/...

There's a new article on NSA's Technology Transfer Program, a 1990s-era program to license NSA patents to private industry. I was pretty dismissive about the offerings in the article, but I didn't find anything interesting in the catalog. My guess is that the good stuff remains classified, and isn't "transferred" to anyone.
http://www.dailydot.com/politics/...
https://www.nsa.gov/research/_files/tech_transfers/...
http://yro.slashdot.org/story/14/09/26/1451223/...

The Chinese government checked ten thousand pigeons for "dangerous materials." Because fear.
http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia-pacific/2014/10/...

Firechat is a secure wireless peer-to-peer chat app.
http://boingboing.net/2014/09/29/...
It has security issues.
https://citizenlab.org/2014/07/...
https://citizenlab.org/2014/07/...

The NSA is building a private cloud with its own security features.
http://www.cio.com/article/2688434/private-cloud/...

Former NSA employee and whistleblower William Binney explains NSA surveillance using Snowden's documents.
http://www.alexaobrien.com/secondsight/wb/binney.html

In July, I wrote about an unpatchable USB vulnerability called BadUSB. Code for the vulnerability has been published.
http://www.wired.com/2014/10/...
http://arstechnica.com/security/2013/10/...
https://github.com/adamcaudill/Psychson
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/07/...

USB cufflinks: just the thing for smuggling data out of secure locations.
http://www.dalys1895.com/designer/dalys/...

This article reads like snake oil. But the company was founded by Lars Knudsen, so it can't possibly be. I'm curious.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/...

Good essay by Molly Sauter: basically, there is no legal avenue for activism and protest on the Internet.
http://boingboing.net/2014/09/26/fuckthecfaa.html
Also note Sauter's new book, The Coming Swarm.
http://www.amazon.com/...

Interesting essay about James Bamford and his efforts to publish The Puzzle Palace over the NSA's objections. Required reading for those who think the NSA's excesses are somehow new.
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/10/02/...


Fake Cell Phone Towers Across the US

Earlier this month, there were a bunch of stories about fake cell phone towers discovered around the US. These seem to be IMSI catchers, like Harris Corporation's Stingray, and are used to capture location information and potentially phone calls, text messages, and smart-phone Internet traffic. A couple of days ago, the Washington Post ran a story about fake cell phone towers in politically interesting places around Washington DC. In both cases, researchers used security software that's part of CryptoPhone from the German company GSMK. And in both cases, we don't know who is running these fake cell phone towers. Is it the US government? A foreign government? Multiple foreign governments? Criminals?

This is the problem with building an infrastructure of surveillance: you can't regulate who gets to use it. The FBI has been protecting Stingray like it's an enormous secret, but it's not a secret anymore. We are all vulnerable to everyone because the NSA wanted us to be vulnerable to them.

We have one infrastructure. We can't choose a world where the US gets to spy and the Chinese don't. We get to choose a world where everyone can spy, or a world where no one can spy. We can be secure from everyone, or vulnerable to anyone. And I'm tired of us choosing surveillance over security.

http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2013/09/...
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/09/...

http://www.wired.com/2014/09/...
http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/...
http://io9.com/...
http://gizmodo.com/...
http://venturebeat.com/2014/09/02/...
https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=8264540

http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/...

Stingray:
http://www.extremetech.com/mobile/...
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?...


FOXACID Operations Manual

A few days ago, I saw this tweet: "Just a reminder that it is now *a full year* since Schneier cited it, and the FOXACID ops manual remains unpublished." It's true.

The citation is this: "According to a top-secret operational procedures manual provided by Edward Snowden, an exploit named Validator might be the default, but the NSA has a variety of options. The documentation mentions United Rake, Peddle Cheap, Packet Wrench, and Beach Head--all delivered from a FOXACID subsystem called Ferret Cannon."

Back when I broke the QUANTUM and FOXACID programs, I talked with the Guardian editors about publishing the manual. In the end, we decided not to, because the information in it wasn't useful to understanding the story. It's been a year since I've seen it, but I remember it being just what I called it: an operation procedures manual. It talked about what to type into which screens, and how to deal with error conditions. It didn't talk about capabilities, either technical or operational. I found it interesting, but it was hard to argue that it was necessary in order to understand the story.

It will probably never be published. I lost access to the Snowden documents soon after writing that essay -- Greenwald broke with the Guardian, and I have never been invited back by the Intercept -- and there's no one looking at the documents with an eye to writing about the NSA's technical capabilities and how to securely design systems to protect against government surveillance. Even though we now know that the same capabilities are being used by other governments and cyber criminals, there's much more interest in stories with political ramifications.

The tweet:
https://twitter.com/puellavulnerata/status/...

The citation:
http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/...

QUANTUM and FOXACID:
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/...
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2014/08/...


Schneier News

I'm speaking at the 2014 Indianapolis Enterprise Security Solutions Summit on October 16.
http://pages.fishnetsecurity.com/IndyES3_Home1.html

I'm speaking at an MN ISSA After Hours Event in Roseville, Minnesota on October 30.
http://mn.issa.org/news/...

I'm speaking at the MassTLC conference in Boston on October 22.
http://www.masstlc.org/events/event_details.asp?...

I'm speaking at QCon in San Francisco on November 3.
http://qconsf.com/


NSA Has Undercover Operatives in Foreign Companies

The latest Intercept article on the Snowden NSA documents talks about their undercover operatives working in foreign companies. There are no specifics, although the countries China, Germany, and South Korea are mentioned. It's also hard to tell if the NSA has undercover operatives working in companies in those countries, or has undercover contractors visiting those companies. The document is dated 2004, although there's no reason to believe that the NSA has changed its behavior since then.

The most controversial revelation in Sentry Eagle might be a fleeting reference to the NSA infiltrating clandestine agents into "commercial entities." The briefing document states that among Sentry Eagle's most closely guarded components are "facts related to NSA personnel (under cover), operational meetings, specific operations, specific technology, specific locations and covert communications related to SIGINT enabling with specific commercial entities (A/B/C)""
It is not clear whether these "commercial entities" are American or foreign or both. Generally the placeholder "(A/B/C)" is used in the briefing document to refer to American companies, though on one occasion it refers to both American and foreign companies. Foreign companies are referred to with the placeholder "(M/N/O)." The NSA refused to provide any clarification to *The Intercept*.

That program is SENTRY OSPREY, which is a program under SENTRY EAGLE.

The document makes no other reference to NSA agents working under cover. It is not clear whether they might be working as full-time employees at the "commercial entities," or whether they are visiting commercial facilities under false pretenses.

Least fun job right now: being the NSA person who fielded the telephone call from the Intercept to clarify that (A/B/C)/(M/N/O) thing. "Hi. We're going public with SENTRY EAGLE next week. There's one thing in the document we don't understand, and we wonder if you could help us...." Actually, that's wrong. The person who fielded the phone call had no idea what SENTRY EAGLE was. The least fun job belongs to the person up the command chain who did.

https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/10/10/...

http://www.wired.com/2014/10/...
http://beta.slashdot.org/story/208367
https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=8441055


DEA Creates Fake Facebook Page in Woman's Name

This is a creepy story. A woman has her phone seized by the Drug Enforcement Agency and gives them permission to look at her phone. Without her knowledge or consent, they steal photos off of the phone (the article says they were "racy") and use it to set up a fake Facebook page in her name.

The woman sued the government over this. Extra creepy was the government's defense in court: "Defendants admit that Plaintiff did not give express permission for the use of photographs contained on her phone on an undercover Facebook page, but state the Plaintiff implicitly consented by granting access to the information stored in her cell phone and by consenting to the use of that information to aid in an ongoing criminal investigations [sic]." The article was edited to say: "Update: Facebook has removed the page and the Justice Department said it is reviewing the incident." So maybe this is just an overzealous agent and not official DEA policy.

But as Marcy Wheeler said, this is a good reason to encrypt your cell phone.

http://www.buzzfeed.com/chrishamby/...

https://www.emptywheel.net/2014/10/07/...


Since 1998, CRYPTO-GRAM has been a free monthly newsletter providing summaries, analyses, insights, and commentaries on security: computer and otherwise. You can subscribe, unsubscribe, or change your address on the Web at <http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram.html>. Back issues are also available at that URL.

Please feel free to forward CRYPTO-GRAM, in whole or in part, to colleagues and friends who will find it valuable. Permission is also granted to reprint CRYPTO-GRAM, as long as it is reprinted in its entirety.

CRYPTO-GRAM is written by Bruce Schneier. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologist, called a "security guru" by The Economist. He is the author of 12 books -- including "Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust Society Needs to Survive" -- as well as hundreds of articles, essays, and academic papers. His influential newsletter "Crypto-Gram" and his blog "Schneier on Security" are read by over 250,000 people. He has testified before Congress, is a frequent guest on television and radio, has served on several government committees, and is regularly quoted in the press. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute, a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, an Advisory Board Member of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, and the Chief Technology Officer at Co3 Systems, Inc. See <http://www.schneier.com>.

Crypto-Gram is a personal newsletter. Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of Co3 Systems, Inc.

Copyright (c) 2014 by Bruce Schneier.



Photo of Bruce Schneier by Per Ervland.

Schneier on Security is a personal website. Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of Co3 Systems, Inc..

Photo of Bruce Schneier by Per Ervland.

Schneier on Security is a personal website. Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of IBM Resilient.